The French parliament has voted for controversial changes to its constitution to enshrine powers implemented under its state of emergency and removing citizenship for terror suspects.
Politicians voted by 317 votes to 199 to give a new status to emergency security powers, after previously supporting stripping convicted extremists’ French citizenship by 162 votes to 148 against.
Manuel Valls, the Prime Minister, said a “long debate” had preceded the National Assembly’s decision.
“It is a reform that seeks to protect the country and our compatriots,” he added, according to iTele.
“I do not doubt for an instant that the Senate will demonstrate the same sense of responsibility.
“It is a good day for the Republic, for the country, for France, for unity in the face of terrorism.”
The decision to revoke a person's French citizenship will be made by a judge and apply only to terrorism-related crimes if passed as law.
The bill must still be voted on by the Senate in March and pass with a three-fifths majority in both houses to be adopted as a constitutional amendment.
It has already revealed deep divisions in France’s governing Socialist party, seeing the resignation of Justice Minister Christiane Taubira over a now-dropped clause referring to dual-nationals born in France.
“Sometimes resisting means staying on, sometimes resisting means leaving,” she said at the time.
Ms Taubira stood down a fortnight ago, citing a “major political disagreement” with the government over plans that opponents say effectively singles out dual-nationality French Muslims, as under international law citizens cannot be made stateless.
Critics have also argued that the measures will increase, rather than reduce, the alienation of young Muslims, undermining efforts to increase cohesion and fight radicalisation.
Despite the shock and mourning still resonating after November’s Paris attacks, the measures have proved divisive in a nation that still centres itself around the values of “liberté, égalité, fraternité”.
Even as politicians voted in favour of changes to the constitution, protesters gathered outside the building in Paris.
Demonstrators waved banners reading “stop the state of emergency” and “we will not give in”, while chanting against restrictions, police searches and Islamophobia.
It was the latest in a series of demonstrations against changes to the constitution and the continuing state of emergency, which the United Nations warned was imposing “excessive and disproportionate restrictions” on fundamental human rights last month.
Special rapporteurs on freedoms of opinion, expression, assembly and privacy were among those raising concerns with the Francois Hollande’s government.
“Ensuring adequate protection against abuse in the use of exceptional measures and surveillance measures in the context of the fight against terrorism is an international obligation of the French State,” they said in a joint statement.
“While exceptional measures may be required under exceptional circumstances, this does not relieve the authorities from demonstrating that these are applied solely for the purposes for which they were prescribed, and are directly related to the specific objective that inspired them.”
The world mourns Paris attacks - in pictures
The world mourns Paris attacks - in pictures
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Members of the public gather to lay flowers and light candles at La Belle Equipe restaraunt on Rue de Charonne in Paris
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People lay a memorial to honour victims of the Paris terror attacks at Federation Square in Melbourne, Australia
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Soccer fans display the colors of the French flag in response to the deadly terrorist attack in Paris, France before the soccer match between the New York Cosmos' and the Ottawa Fury for the North American Soccer League championship at Hofstra University in Hempstead, New York, USA
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Pakistani Civil society activists shout slogans during a protest against Isis militants near the French consulate for the victims of the 13 November Paris attacks in Karachi, Pakistan
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People gather and view messages written on the ground at Place de la Republique in Paris
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French flags and a note reading "We will not let you spoil our children's lives" at the site of the attack at the Cafe Belle Equipe on rue de Charonne in the 11th district, in Paris
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A rose is placed beside a bullet hole at La Belle Equipe restaraunt on Rue de Charonne following the terrorist attack in Paris. As France observes three days of national mourning members of the public continue to pay tribute to the victims of deadly attacks
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People gather for a national service for the victims of the terror attack at Notre Dame cathedral in Paris
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Bono and band members of U2 pay their respects and place flowers on the pavement near the scene of yesterday's Bataclan Theatre terrorist attack in Paris
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A man kneels as he pays tribute to victims at Place de la Republique near the deadly attack sites in Paris
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Tributes to the victims at the Place de la Republique square in Paris
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An electronic billboard on a canal show solidarity with Paris in Milan
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People lay down flowers and light candles to tribute victims of Friday's attacks in Paris as the Brandenburg gate is illuminated in blue, white and red in the colors of the French flag, in Berlin
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A man leaves flowers as a tribute following the deadly attacks in Paris, outside the French consulate in Istanbul
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People take pictures of flowers placed in bullet holes in the window of a Japanese restaurant next to the cafe 'La Belle Equipe'
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People gather at a makeshift memorial next to the Bataclan theatre in Paris on November 14, 2015,
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A woman carrying flowers cries in front of the Carillon cafe and the Petit Cambodge restaurant in Paris
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People gather in front of flowers that were laid outside the French embassy in Rome
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People react near the cafe 'La Belle Equipe' at the Rue de Charonne
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A young girl places a candle in front of the Carillon cafe in Paris
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Flowers placed outside the cafe 'La Belle Equipe' at the Rue de Charonne in Paris, the scene for one of the attacks
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A woman is comforted by others outside the Carillon cafe and the Petit Cambodge restaurant in Paris
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The Brandenbourg Gate featuring French national colors is pictured in Berlin, on November 14, 2015 a day after deadly attacks in Paris
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Flowers are laid in front of the French embassy in Rome
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A candle is lit next to flowers outside the French Embassy in Berlin
Human rights groups warned about the scope for rights abuses in November, when the state of emergency was extended for three months.
The laws allow police to place anyone deemed to be a security risk under house arrest, dissolve groups thought to be a threat to public order, carry out searches without warrants and copy data, and block any websites that “encourage” terrorism.
Curfews can be imposed, large gatherings or protests forbidden and movement limited.
The UN called on the government not to extend the powers beyond their deadline on 26 February, but they are widely expected to be extended.
Isis militants killed 130 people in Paris in a series of shooting and suicide bombings at the Bataclan concert hall, Stade de France, restaurants and bars on 13 November last year.
The terrorist group claimed the massacres were revenge for French air strikes against its militants in Syria and members have threatened further attacks.Reuse content