A Rwandan accused of organising the killing of 2,000 people during the genocide in 1994 led a militia that made victims dig graves and then killed them with grenades and machetes, an Oslo court was told.
Sadi Bugingo, who denies aggravated murder, funded the militia and worked with officials to organise the murders, witnesses said. Police and the mayor of Kibungo told Tutsi civilians to gather for a rice handout, then let the militia kill 1,000 people, said Antoine Rusheni, who lost five of his seven children. He added: "It seemed Bugingo was leading them."
Mr Bugingo denies a similar role in the killing of another 1,000 people at a Catholic centre the next day.
Another witness, Clarisse Kanyange, said the victims were told to dig holes in the ground "to use as latrines", adding: "We later learned these were to be used as mass graves."
Mr Bugingo faces up to 21 years in a Norwegian jail if convicted.