A spokesperson for the national coast guard said it has launched search and rescue missions for more possible victims following the disaster on Tuesday.
The small fibreglass boat was just 25 metres from the Turkish coastline near the town of Doğanbey when it partially capsized.
Two refugees were rescued alive but nine, including two babies were found dead, and more are feared to be missing.
Around 11 members of the group made it to the beach safely after swimming back to shore.
Doğanbey lies near a narrow channel separating the Turkish mainland from Samos, one of the many Greek islands in the Aegean Sea where hundreds of thousands of asylum seekers have arrived on smugglers’ boats over the past year.
Disasters have become more frequent in rough conditions caused by the worsening winter weather and at least 37 drowned, including several toddlers and children, off the coastline north of Doğanbey on Saturday.
The International Organisation for Migration (IOM) says more than 270 refugees died attempting to cross the Aegean Sea in January, including around 60 children.
At least 96 more asylum seekers drowned in the central Mediterranean in the same month, on another smuggling route from Libya to Italy.
The toll is almost triple that from this time in 2015, when the refugee crisis saw more than a million asylum seekers arrive in Europe.
Around 67,000 migrants are believed to have arrived in Europe by sea so far this year – mostly Syrians, Afghans and Iraqis landing on Greek islands.
Last year saw 3,400 deaths, peaking in April when 1,100 people died in a week in successive sinkings off the coast of Libya.
Individual disasters in the Aegean Sea have previously had a lower death toll than those in the central Mediterranean because of the small inflatable boats used by smugglers – but there are fears numbers could rise if larger boats continue to be used in rough conditions and by inexperienced skippers navigating rocky shoals.
Dozens of people are packed on to the overcrowded dinghys, which frequently sink or capsize in tragedies like the one that killed Alan Kurdi, his mother, brother and other passengers in September.
Refugee crisis - in pictures
Refugee crisis - in pictures
A child looks through the fence at the Moria detention camp for migrants and refugees at the island of Lesbos on May 24, 2016.
Ahmad Zarour, 32, from Syria, reacts after his rescue by MOAS (Migrant Offshore Aid Station) while attempting to reach the Greek island of Agathonisi, Dodecanese, southeastern Agean Sea
Syrian migrants holding life vests gather onto a pebble beach in the Yesil liman district of Canakkale, northwestern Turkey, after being stopped by Turkish police in their attempt to reach the Greek island of Lesbos on 29 January 2016.
Refugees flash the 'V for victory' sign during a demonstration as they block the Greek-Macedonian border
Migrants have been braving sub zero temperatures as they cross the border from Macedonia into Serbia.
A sinking boat is seen behind a Turkish gendarme off the coast of Canakkale's Bademli district on January 30, 2016. At least 33 migrants drowned on January 30 when their boat sank in the Aegean Sea while trying to cross from Turkey to Greece.
A general view of a shelter for migrants inside a hangar of the former Tempelhof airport in Berlin, Germany
Refugees protest behind a fence against restrictions limiting passage at the Greek-Macedonian border, near Gevgelija. Since last week, Macedonia has restricted passage to northern Europe to only Syrians, Iraqis and Afghans who are considered war refugees. All other nationalities are deemed economic migrants and told to turn back. Macedonia has finished building a fence on its frontier with Greece becoming the latest country in Europe to build a border barrier aimed at checking the flow of refugees
A father and his child wait after being caught by Turkish gendarme on 27 January 2016 at Canakkale's Kucukkuyu district
Migrants make hand signals as they arrive into the southern Spanish port of Malaga on 27 January, 2016 after an inflatable boat carrying 55 Africans, seven of them women and six chidren, was rescued by the Spanish coast guard off the Spanish coast.
A refugee holds two children as dozens arrive on an overcrowded boat on the Greek island of Lesbos
A child, covered by emergency blankets, reacts as she arrives, with other refugees and migrants, on the Greek island of Lesbos, At least five migrants including three children, died after four boats sank between Turkey and Greece, as rescue workers searched the sea for dozens more, the Greek coastguard said
Migrants wait under outside the Moria registration camp on the Lesbos. Over 400,000 people have landed on Greek islands from neighbouring Turkey since the beginning of the year
The bodies of Christian refugees are buried separately from Muslim refugees at the Agios Panteleimonas cemetery in Mytilene, Lesbos
Macedonian police officers control a crowd of refugees as they prepare to enter a camp after crossing the Greek border into Macedonia near Gevgelija
A refugee tries to force the entry to a camp as Macedonian police officers control a crowd after crossing the Greek border into Macedonia near Gevgelija
Refugees are seen aboard a Turkish fishing boat as they arrive on the Greek island of Lesbos after crossing a part of the Aegean Sea from the Turkish coast to Lesbos
An elderly woman sings a lullaby to baby on a beach after arriving with other refugees on the Greek island of Lesbos after crossing the Aegean sea from Turkey
A man collapses as refugees make land from an overloaded rubber dinghy after crossing the Aegean see from Turkey, at the island of Lesbos
A girl reacts as refugees arrive by boat on the Greek island of Lesbos after crossing the Aegean sea from Turkey
Refugees make a show of hands as they queue after crossing the Greek border into Macedonia near Gevgelija
People help a wheelchair user board a train with others, heading towards Serbia, at the transit camp for refugees near the southern Macedonian town of Gevgelija
Refugees board a train, after crossing the Greek-Macedonian border, near Gevgelija. Macedonia is a key transit country in the Balkans migration route into the EU, with thousands of asylum seekers - many of them from Syria, Afghanistan, Iraq and Somalia - entering the country every day
An aerial picture shows the "New Jungle" refugee camp where some 3,500 people live while they attempt to enter Britain, near the port of Calais, northern France
A Syrian girl reacts as she helped by a volunteer upon her arrival from Turkey on the Greek island of Lesbos, after having crossed the Aegean Sea
Refugees arrive by boat on the Greek island of Lesbos after crossing the Aegean sea from Turkey
Beds ready for use for migrants and refugees are prepared at a processing center on January 27, 2016 in Passau, Germany. The flow of migrants arriving in Passau has dropped to between 500 and 1,000 per day, down significantly from last November, when in the same region up to 6,000 migrants were arriving daily.
Images of the three-year-old boy lying dead on the beach sparked international calls for Europe to prevent avoidable deaths at sea and give refugees a safe home, forcing David Cameron to increase the number of Syrians being taken in by the UK.
But less than five months on, the political mood towards asylum seekers has reversed as countries across Europe seek to restrict the number of arrivals and implement controversial proposals to make them “pay for their stay”.
Hundreds of migrants blocked the main road leading to the Greek-Macedonian border today in protest against rules restricting the asylum seekers allowed to pass through to specific countries.
Taxi-drivers on the Macedonian side had blocked the railway line between the two countries, protesting over the priority given to trains and buses to take the migrants north to Serbia, while on the Greek side, farmers had parked dozens of tractors to demonstrate against planned pension reforms.
Thousands of migrants continue to attempt the treacherous sea journeys every day, fleeing war and persecution in Syria, Iraq, Afghanistan, Eritrea and across Africa and the Middle East.
Additional reporting by AP and Reuters
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