Hardliners who stop at nothing

ISTANBUL - Alone among groups representing the 20 million Kurds split between Turkey, Iraq, Iran and Syria, the Kurdistan Workers Party (PKK) of Turkey does not hesitate to use terrorist methods in pursuit of its goal of a united independent Kurdish state, writes Hugh Pope.

Hostage-taking, massacres, bombs in Turkish tourist resorts and attacks on Turkish consulates in Europe are part of a strategy to inspire fear and win an international profile for an organisation that even other Kurdish guerrilla groups are not quite comfortable with.

Turkey tries to dismiss the PKK as terrorist bandits, but that does not explain the success of this part- Marxist, part-nationalist, part-Islamic group, where it finds its financial support and who its foreign backers are. It appears to have been given at least transit facilities by hardline elements in Iran, an allegation denied by Iranian officials.

President Saddam Hussein of Iraq has given some aid to the PKK. But the PKK also maintains offices in northern Iraq, which is an anti- Saddam area controlled by Kurdish guerrillas, even though a Turkish- Iraqi Kurdish guerrilla offensive in October forced the PKK away from bases on the Iraqi-Turkish border.

The PKK's main backer has always been Syria. The PKK leader, Abdullah Ocalan, has been based in Damascus or the Syrian-controlled Bekaa Valley for more than a decade. Some speak of a weakening of Mr Ocalan's influence due to health and other problems, but the increasingly powerful chief of the PKK's military wing, Cemil Bayik, is also close to Syrian control.

But the key to Turkey's Kurdish problem is in Turkey itself. In the past nine years the insurgency has left 6,900 people dead, 1,015 of whom have died since May, when the collapse of a unilateral guerrilla truce plunged the south-east into its worst bout of bloodshed yet.

The rebels are a powerful and feared symbol of a national struggle for many of Turkey's 12 million Kurds.

They have filled a vacuum cleared for them by the Turkish security forces, who have refused to allow the emergence of a moderate Kurdish nationalist political centre.

Suggested Topics
Start your day with The Independent, sign up for daily news emails
Arts and Entertainment
Cassetteboy's latest video is called Emperor's New Clothes rap
videoThe political parody genius duo strike again with new video
Sport
Steven Fletcher scores the second goal for Scotland
cricketBut they have to bounce back to beat Gibraltar in Euro 2016 qualifier
News
news
Arts and Entertainment
Chris Evans is the favourite to replace Jeremy Clarkson on Top Gear
TV
Have you tried new the Independent Digital Edition apps?
ebooks
ebooksA special investigation by Andy McSmith
  • Get to the point
Latest stories from i100
Have you tried new the Independent Digital Edition apps?
Independent Dating
and  

By clicking 'Search' you
are agreeing to our
Terms of Use.

iJobs Job Widget
iJobs General

Recruitment Genius: Junior Web Designer - Client Liaison

£6 per hour: Recruitment Genius: This is an exciting opportunity to join a gro...

Recruitment Genius: Service Delivery Manager

Negotiable: Recruitment Genius: A Service Delivery Manager is required to join...

Recruitment Genius: Massage Therapist / Sports Therapist

£12000 - £24000 per annum: Recruitment Genius: A opportunity has arisen for a ...

Ashdown Group: Practice Accountant - Bournemouth - £38,000

£32000 - £38000 per annum: Ashdown Group: A successful accountancy practice in...

Day In a Page

Election 2015: How many of the Government's coalition agreement promises have been kept?

Promises, promises

But how many coalition agreement pledges have been kept?
The Gaza fisherman who built his own reef - and was shot dead there by an Israeli gunboat

The death of a Gaza fisherman

He built his own reef, and was fatally shot there by an Israeli gunboat
Saudi Arabia's airstrikes in Yemen are fuelling the Gulf's fire

Saudi airstrikes are fuelling the Gulf's fire

Arab intervention in Yemen risks entrenching Sunni-Shia divide and handing a victory to Isis, says Patrick Cockburn
Zayn Malik's departure from One Direction shows the perils of fame in the age of social media

The only direction Zayn could go

We wince at the anguish of One Direction's fans, but Malik's departure shows the perils of fame in the age of social media
Young Magician of the Year 2015: Meet the schoolgirl from Newcastle who has her heart set on being the competition's first female winner

Spells like teen spirit

A 16-year-old from Newcastle has set her heart on being the first female to win Young Magician of the Year. Jonathan Owen meets her
Jonathan Anderson: If fashion is a cycle, this young man knows just how to ride it

If fashion is a cycle, this young man knows just how to ride it

British designer Jonathan Anderson is putting his stamp on venerable house Loewe
Number plates scheme could provide a licence to offend in the land of the free

Licence to offend in the land of the free

Cash-strapped states have hit on a way of making money out of drivers that may be in collision with the First Amendment, says Rupert Cornwell
From farm to fork: Meet the Cornish fishermen, vegetable-growers and butchers causing a stir in London's top restaurants

From farm to fork in Cornwall

One man is bringing together Cornwall's most accomplished growers, fishermen and butchers with London's best chefs to put the finest, freshest produce on the plates of some of the country’s best restaurants
Robert Parker interview: The world's top wine critic on tasting 10,000 bottles a year, absurd drinking notes and New World wannabes

Robert Parker interview

The world's top wine critic on tasting 10,000 bottles a year, absurd drinking notes and New World wannabes
Don't believe the stereotype - or should you?

Don't believe the stereotype - or should you?

We exaggerate regional traits and turn them into jokes - and those on the receiving end are in on it too, says DJ Taylor
How to make your own Easter egg: Willie Harcourt-Cooze shares his chocolate recipes

How to make your own Easter egg

Willie Harcourt-Cooze talks about his love affair with 'cacao' - and creates an Easter egg especially for The Independent on Sunday
Bill Granger recipes: Our chef declares barbecue season open with his twist on a tradtional Easter Sunday lamb lunch

Bill Granger's twist on Easter Sunday lunch

Next weekend, our chef plans to return to his Aussie roots by firing up the barbecue
Joe Marler: 'It's the way I think the game should be played'

Joe Marler: 'It's the way I think the game should be played'

The England prop relives the highs and lows of last Saturday's remarkable afternoon of Six Nations rugby
Cricket World Cup 2015: Has the success of the tournament spelt the end for Test matches?

Cricket World Cup 2015

Has the success of the tournament spelt the end for Test matches?
The Last Word: Justin Gatlin knows the price of everything, the value of nothing

Michael Calvin's Last Word

Justin Gatlin knows the price of everything, the value of nothing