How a smug political elite got it all wrong

When Alain Juppe stood up in the National Assembly yesterday to defend his government against a vote of censure from the Socialists, he and his fellow Gaullists might well have asked themselves how they had got into this mess. Only six months before, all the cards had seemed stacked in their favour, giving them more room for manoeuvre than any government in France for more than a decade.

Jacques Chirac had won a convincing majority in the presidential election in May and had a seven-year term before him. The Gaullist-led coalition held three-quarters of seats in the National Assembly, and a comfortable majority in the Senate. The next parliamentary elections are not due until 1998.

Mr Juppe was not only seen as one of the best brains of his generation, but appeared so politically and temperamentally close to Mr Chirac that disagreement looked unlikely. For the first time for many years, it seemed, the French constitutional axiom "The President presides and the government governs" had a chance of working. How did it go so wrong?

First, contradictory election promises from Mr Chirac that allowed different sections of the voting public - taxpayers, the unemployed, students, big business - all to believe they would benefit at the same time.

The second failure was Mr Juppe's, deriving from his first government, appointed immediately after Mr Chirac's election. Marked by departmental squabbles, it was dissolved after five months, having squandered a honeymoon period when voters would have expected, if not fully supported, change. The country's financial position looked stronger and the jobs situation better than today, allowing a little more room for manoeuvre. By the time Mr Juppe was reappointed Prime Minister and had named a leaner, slimmer, more like-minded team, public disappointment had already set in.

The constitutional peculiarities of France may also have played a part. The huge majority for the Gaullist-led coalition in parliament reflected the voters' mood in 1993, exasperated with 12 years of Francois Mitterrand. This year's presidential election showed a 53-47 right-left split. The mayoral elections held a month later showed a still more even division, with a considerable bias against established power. The President can call new parliamentary elections, but Mr Chirac had no incentive to do so, because of his party's huge majority. So President, parliament and public are out of kilter.

Constitutional relations between the Prime Minister, the government and parliament also limit the degree to which parliament, in particular, can function as the "voice of the people" in response to the public mood. The Prime Minister is appointed by the President and is, in theory, accountable both to him and to parliament. In practice, however, parliament has hardly any real "checking" role at all.

The fact that ministers may not also be MPs means that the common interest which binds together the governing party in Britain hardly exists. Similarly, voters have no confidence that if they lobby their MPs their views will be passed on to ministers.

The separation of executive and legislature is hardly unique to France. But with presidential and parliamentary elections not coinciding it means ministers and MPs can both be detached from the national mood in a way that would be difficult in Britain.

A third crucial factor is the separate world inhabited by the French elite, which includes ministers and MPs of most parties. Increasingly, they have been educated (at the highly selective grandes ecoles), worked (in well-paid safe jobs in the civil service or state industry) and lived (in prestigious and subsidised accommodation) in conditions different from those of the rest of the population.

The reception for Mr Juppe's social security reforms illustrates the gap between the elite and the rest. When he presented his proposals to the National Assembly three weeks ago, he had prepared the ground impeccably. Potential dissidents on the right were heard and given small concessions, so were difficult lobby groups, and Socialist leaders, including the leader of the biggest, Socialist-dominated trade union, the CFDT.

Within this small group, the proposals were, if not welcomed, accepted as inevitable. So was Mr Juppe's decision to rush the main proposals through parliament by "edict", rather than after a series of parliamentary debates. Mr Juppe sat back, watched the franc rise and believed his troubles were over.

But as news of the reforms filtered through to the rest of the population (Mr Juppe's speech in parliament was not televised), the mood turned hostile and stubborn. No one - not the President, not Mr Juppe, not even the social affairs minister - went on television to tell people what the measures entailed; rumours multiplied. The decision to pass the measures by edict looked like additional defiance of the French public.

Finally, last weekend the Socialists in parliament, like the major trade union leaders a few days before, understood that public anger was forcing their hand. They tabled a censure motion. It was a late and hopeless gesture, which served to illustrate why real opposition in France is on the streets.

Start your day with The Independent, sign up for daily news emails
Have you tried new the Independent Digital Edition apps?
ebooks
ebooksA special investigation by Andy McSmith
News
Jerry Seinfeld Comedians in Cars Getting Coffee
peopleSitcom star urges men to be more supportive of women than ever
Life and Style
Living for the moment: Julianne Moore playing Alzheimer’s sufferer Alice
health
News
Jay Z
businessJay-Z's bid for Spotify rival could be blocked
Sport
footballLouis van Gaal is watching a different Manchester United and Wenger can still spring a surprise
News
The spider makes its break for freedom
VIDEO
Latest stories from i100
Have you tried new the Independent Digital Edition apps?
Independent Dating
and  

By clicking 'Search' you
are agreeing to our
Terms of Use.

iJobs Job Widget
iJobs General

Recruitment Genius: Event Management and Marketing Admin Support

£16000 - £18000 per annum: Recruitment Genius: This is an opportunity to join ...

Recruitment Genius: Evening Administrator

£8 per hour: Recruitment Genius: This Pension Specialist was established early...

Recruitment Genius: Lettings Negotiator

£20000 - £40000 per annum: Recruitment Genius: A Central London based firm loo...

Recruitment Genius: Events / Conference Operations Manager

£25000 - £32000 per annum: Recruitment Genius: This is an opportunity to join ...

Day In a Page

War with Isis: Iraq's government fights to win back Tikrit from militants - but then what?

Baghdad fights to win back Tikrit from Isis – but then what?

Patrick Cockburn reports from Kirkuk on a conflict which sectarianism has made intractable
Living with Alzheimer's: What is it really like to be diagnosed with early-onset dementia?

What is it like to live with Alzheimer's?

Depicting early-onset Alzheimer's, the film 'Still Alice' had a profound effect on Joy Watson, who lives with the illness. She tells Kate Hilpern how she's coped with the diagnosis
The Internet of Things: Meet the British salesman who gave real-world items a virtual life

Setting in motion the Internet of Things

British salesman Kevin Ashton gave real-world items a virtual life
Election 2015: Latest polling reveals Tories and Labour on course to win the same number of seats - with the SNP holding the balance of power

Election 2015: A dead heat between Mr Bean and Dick Dastardly!

Lord Ashcroft reveals latest polling – and which character voters associate with each leader
Audiences queue up for 'true stories told live' as cult competition The Moth goes global

Cult competition The Moth goes global

The non-profit 'slam storytelling' competition was founded in 1997 by the novelist George Dawes Green and has seen Malcolm Gladwell, Salman Rushdie and Molly Ringwald all take their turn at the mic
Pakistani women come out fighting: A hard-hitting play focuses on female Muslim boxers

Pakistani women come out fighting

Hard-hitting new play 'No Guts, No Heart, No Glory' focuses on female Muslim boxers
Leonora Carrington transcended her stolid background to become an avant garde star

Surreal deal: Leonora Carrington

The artist transcended her stolid background to become an avant garde star
LGBT History Month: Pupils discuss topics from Sappho to same-sex marriage

Education: LGBT History Month

Pupils have been discussing topics from Sappho to same-sex marriage
11 best gel eyeliners

Go bold this season: 11 best gel eyeliners

Use an ink pot eyeliner to go bold on the eyes with this season's feline flicked winged liner
Cricket World Cup 2015: Tournament runs riot to make the event more hit than miss...

Cricket World Cup runs riot to make the event more hit than miss...

The tournament has reached its halfway mark and scores of 300 and amazing catches abound. One thing never changes, though – everyone loves beating England
Katarina Johnson-Thompson: Heptathlete ready to jump at first major title

Katarina Johnson-Thompson: Ready to jump at first major title

After her 2014 was ruined by injury, 21-year-old Briton is leading pentathlete going into this week’s European Indoors. Now she intends to turn form into gold
Syrian conflict is the world's first 'climate change war', say scientists, but it won't be the last one

Climate change key in Syrian conflict

And it will trigger more war in future
How I outwitted the Gestapo

How I outwitted the Gestapo

My life as a Jew in wartime Berlin
The nation's favourite animal revealed

The nation's favourite animal revealed

Women like cuddly creatures whilst men like creepy-crawlies
Is this the way to get young people to vote?

Getting young people to vote

From #VOTESELFISH to Bite the Ballot