Italy's rich city prays for fall of nation state

BUILDING EUROPE

Michael Portillo would not go down very well in Bologna. For a start, nobody has heard of the SAS around here, much less learned to fear it. As for his stiff-necked line in Euro-scepticism, that would meet only stares of incomprehension.

It is hard to imagine a country more pro-European than Italy, and it is hard to imagine an Italian city more pro-European than Bologna. Here, they cheer for Maastricht, the IGC, the single currency and all the rest with a fervour that seems almost suspicious until one looks more closely.

Bologna is a flourishing, rich and happy city, with the wild Appenines on one side and the lush Po valley plain on the other. Historically, it has had strong links with Europe through the famous university. It is well-run under a left-wing municipal administration that has been in power since the war. The regional economy is booming, thanks in part to a healthy export trade in prestigious local products, such as Parmesan cheese and Ferrari sports cars.

The royal pain in the lives of most Bolognese is the Italian government, which taxes them too much and squanders the proceeds through incompetence and corruption. Europe, in contrast, promises fewer obstacles to economic prosperity and greater efficiency. It is simple: more government from Europe means less of the disastrous home-grown variety.

"If we are more enthusiastic about the European Union than the British, it's because we need it more. If forming closer ties with Europe means being governed better, then it can only do us a favour," explained Tania Giacobini, a manager with a ceramics business from Sassuolo, just north of Bologna.

Search for a hint of Euro-scepticism beneath the surface and you search in vain. After all, what is there to lose? National sovereignty? That's a good joke, with clowns running the show in Rome. A strong sense of national identity? Not in Italy, which has only been a nation for 130 years and has never entirely got used to the idea, associating strong nationhood with the Fascist period. The lira? Get serious. The Italian currency is so unstable it is outclassed by the Albanian lek.

"Our problems are national problems, not European ones," said Leo Bertozzi, the export manager for the Parmesan makers' consortium, based up the road in Reggio Emilia. "There's no point us worrying about the consequences of a single currency when we don't even have a reliable postal system."

Parmesan makers have done well out of Europe, not only because the single market has made foreign sales easier (Spain, for example, imposed tariff barriers on cheese imports until 1989) but also because the Commission has protected Parmesan and other specialised products from cheap imitations.

Already, several British supermarkets have removed "grated Parmesan" labels and renamed their low-price plastic tubs "grated Italian cheese". Soon, the consortium hopes, it will be illegal in the EU to describe cheese as Parmesan if it is not made according to the traditional recipe in the Emilia Romagna region.

Parma ham enjoys a similar privileged status throughout the European market. Thanks to Brussels, producers no longer have to seek health certificates to ship their hams across European borders. Their only complaint is that they have no price protection, especially in the French market, where a few big players control supermarket distribution, pushing prices to rock-bottom rates. "But to solve this problem, of course, we will turn to Europe, not the Italian government," said the Parma ham consortium's export manager, Massimo Montuschi.

Not all Italian food producers have the wealth and lobbying power of the Bologna region. Elsewhere, one hears bleats about European agricultural policy, especially in the deep south, which lives off less privileged olives and citrus fruit. Some businesses acknowledge their export performance has been enhanced by a weak lira, an advantage that they will lose if a single European currency comes into being.

Italy faces other potential problems with Europe - the danger that it will fail to qualify for the single currency, and the likelihood that the sacrifices necessary to catch up will increase unemployment, raise taxes and damage already desperate public services.

But these issues are rarely aired in public debate. "Italy's enthusiasm for Europe is as unreal, in its way, as Britain's scepticism," said Patrick McCarthy, an Italian specialist at the Bologna branch of the Johns Hopkins School of International Studies. "Italian political elites think they can integrate into Europe while continuing to act as they like at home," he added."They have largely had a free ride up to now, but that could all change."

Letters, page 18

Start your day with The Independent, sign up for daily news emails
Have you tried new the Independent Digital Edition apps?
ebooks
ebooksA special investigation by Andy McSmith
Latest stories from i100
Have you tried new the Independent Digital Edition apps?
Independent Dating
and  

By clicking 'Search' you
are agreeing to our
Terms of Use.

iJobs Job Widget
iJobs General

Recruitment Genius: Customer Relations Officer

£13000 per annum: Recruitment Genius: This is an exciting opportunity to join ...

Recruitment Genius: IT Help Desk Support

£14500 - £15000 per annum: Recruitment Genius: An IT Help Desk Support individ...

Recruitment Genius: Interim HR Advisor

£27000 - £35000 per annum: Recruitment Genius: We are going through an excitin...

Recruitment Genius: Quantity Surveyor

£37500 - £45000 per annum: Recruitment Genius: Experienced Quantity Surveyor r...

Day In a Page

Homeless Veterans campaign: Donations hit record-breaking £1m target after £300,000 gift from Lloyds Bank

Homeless Veterans campaign

Donations hit record-breaking £1m target after huge gift from Lloyds Bank
Flight MH370 a year on: Lost without a trace – but the search goes on

Lost without a trace

But, a year on, the search continues for Flight MH370
Germany's spymasters left red-faced after thieves break into brand new secret service HQ and steal taps

Germany's spy HQ springs a leak

Thieves break into new €1.5bn complex... to steal taps
International Women's Day 2015: Celebrating the whirlwind wit of Simone de Beauvoir

Whirlwind wit of Simone de Beauvoir

Simone de Beauvoir's seminal feminist polemic, 'The Second Sex', has been published in short-form for International Women's Day
Mark Zuckerberg’s hiring policy might suit him – but it wouldn’t work for me

Mark Zuckerberg’s hiring policy might suit him – but it wouldn’t work for me

Why would I want to employ someone I’d be happy to have as my boss, asks Simon Kelner
Confessions of a planespotter: With three Britons under arrest in the UAE, the perils have never been more apparent

Confessions of a planespotter

With three Britons under arrest in the UAE, the perils have never been more apparent. Sam Masters explains the appeal
Russia's gulag museum 'makes no mention' of Stalin's atrocities

Russia's gulag museum

Ministry of Culture-run site 'makes no mention' of Stalin's atrocities
The big fresh food con: Alarming truth behind the chocolate muffin that won't decay

The big fresh food con

Joanna Blythman reveals the alarming truth behind the chocolate muffin that won't decay
Virginia Ironside was my landlady: What is it like to live with an agony aunt on call 24/7?

Virginia Ironside was my landlady

Tim Willis reveals what it's like to live with an agony aunt on call 24/7
Paris Fashion Week 2015: The wit and wisdom of Manish Arora's exercise in high camp

Paris Fashion Week 2015

The wit and wisdom of Manish Arora's exercise in high camp
8 best workout DVDs

8 best workout DVDs

If your 'New Year new you' regime hasn’t lasted beyond February, why not try working out from home?
Paul Scholes column: I don't believe Jonny Evans was spitting at Papiss Cissé. It was a reflex. But what the Newcastle striker did next was horrible

Paul Scholes column

I don't believe Evans was spitting at Cissé. It was a reflex. But what the Newcastle striker did next was horrible
Miguel Layun interview: From the Azteca to Vicarage Road with a million followers

From the Azteca to Vicarage Road with a million followers

Miguel Layun is a star in Mexico where he was criticised for leaving to join Watford. But he says he sees the bigger picture
Frank Warren column: Amir Khan ready to meet winner of Floyd Mayweather v Manny Pacquiao

Khan ready to meet winner of Mayweather v Pacquiao

The Bolton fighter is unlikely to take on Kell Brook with two superstar opponents on the horizon, says Frank Warren
War with Isis: Iraq's government fights to win back Tikrit from militants - but then what?

Baghdad fights to win back Tikrit from Isis – but then what?

Patrick Cockburn reports from Kirkuk on a conflict which sectarianism has made intractable