Pretoria's long march to the end of an era: The following is a chronology of the main events highlighting the rise and fall of apartheid in South Africa

SOUTH AFRICA'S negotiators yesterday set 27 April 1994 as the target date for the first all-race elections. Here are some of the important milestones along the long road to democracy:

1948 - National Party elected pledging separate development.

1950 - Government adopts key laws underpinning apartheid.

1960 - Police kill 69 people during anti-apartheid protests at Sharpeville. African National Congress (ANC) and Pan-Africanist Congress (PAC) banned.

1961 - South Africa declared republic, leaves Commonwealth. Underground ANC launches guerrilla campaign.

1964 - Nelson Mandela and senior ANC associates sentenced to life in prison for resisting white rule.

1976 - More than 600 blacks die in year-long black uprising triggered by Soweto pupil protests on 16 June.

1983 - South Africa adopts new constitution giving limited parliamentary powers to Indian and mixed-race voters.

1984 - Power struggle erupts in Natal province between ANC and Zulu-based Inkatha Freedom Party. Country-wide political violence claims more than 15,000 lives by June 1993.

1985 - Government imposes partial emergency rule to quell black uprising. Foreign investors start disinvestment drive.

1986 - Full emergency rule declared. US Congress passes comprehensive sanctions against Pretoria and many other Western governments follow suit.

1990: 2 Feb - F W de Klerk, who replaced P W Botha as President in 1989, repudiates apartheid, legalises about 30 prohibited political groups, including ANC.

11 Feb - Mandela released from prison.

May - ANC and government meet for first time, agree to remove obstacles to negotiation: release of political prisoners, indemnity of political exiles, joint commitment to end violence in townships.

August - ANC agrees to suspend 30-year-old armed struggle.

1991: 5 June - Parliament repeals residential segregation and laws that reserve 87 per cent of land for 14 per cent white minority.

17 June - Parliament drops mandatory race classification.

Sept - Anti-apartheid movements and government sign peace accord.

20 Dec - Power-sharing talks between government and 16 anti-apartheid groups, named Convention for a Democratic South Africa (Codesa), open.

1992: 18 March - De Klerk wins 70 per cent in referendum to test support among 3.3 million white voters for reforms.

23 June - ANC and 10 allies break off bilateral talks and Codesa negotiations in protest against 17 June massacre of at least 39 blacks at Boipatong township. ANC blames Inkatha.

26 Sept - De Klerk and Mandela meet to break deadlock over negotiations after Ciskei troops kill 28 ANC supporters, sign 'record of understanding'.

27 Sept - Inkatha quits democracy talks, accusing government and ANC of seeking to marginalise Zulu nation.

1993: 5 March - Multi-party talks resume with 26 political groups, including pro-apartheid Conservative Party and radical PAC.

25 March - Government moves to desegregate education, last remaining social cornerstone of apartheid.

29 April - De Klerk apologises for apartheid.

7 May - Main political groups agree to hold all-race elections by end of April 1994. Right-wing whites form united front to campaign for Afrikaner autonomy.

2 July - Democracy negotiators agree on 27 April 1994, as date for first all-race elections.

Start your day with The Independent, sign up for daily news emails
Have you tried new the Independent Digital Edition apps?
ebooks
ebooksA celebration of British elections
  • Get to the point
Latest stories from i100
Have you tried new the Independent Digital Edition apps?
Independent Dating
and  

By clicking 'Search' you
are agreeing to our
Terms of Use.

iJobs Job Widget
iJobs General

Ashdown Group: Trainee Consultant - Surrey/ South West London

£22000 per annum + pension,bonus,career progression: Ashdown Group: An establi...

Ashdown Group: Trainee Consultant - Surrey / South West London

£22000 per annum + pension,bonus,career progression: Ashdown Group: An establi...

Ashdown Group: Recruitment Consultant / Account Manager - Surrey / SW London

£40000 per annum + realistic targets: Ashdown Group: A thriving recruitment co...

Ashdown Group: Part-time Payroll Officer - Yorkshire - Professional Services

£25000 per annum: Ashdown Group: A successful professional services firm is lo...

Day In a Page

Fishing for votes with Nigel Farage: The Ukip leader shows how he can work an audience as he casts his line to the disaffected of Grimsby

Fishing is on Nigel Farage's mind

Ukip leader casts a line to the disaffected
Who is bombing whom in the Middle East? It's amazing they don't all hit each other

Who is bombing whom in the Middle East?

Robert Fisk untangles the countries and factions
China's influence on fashion: At the top of the game both creatively and commercially

China's influence on fashion

At the top of the game both creatively and commercially
Lord O’Donnell: Former cabinet secretary on the election and life away from the levers of power

The man known as GOD has a reputation for getting the job done

Lord O'Donnell's three principles of rule
Rainbow shades: It's all bright on the night

Rainbow shades

It's all bright on the night
'It was first time I had ever tasted chocolate. I kept a piece, and when Amsterdam was liberated, I gave it to the first Allied soldier I saw'

Bread from heaven

Dutch survivors thank RAF for World War II drop that saved millions
Britain will be 'run for the wealthy and powerful' if Tories retain power - Labour

How 'the Axe' helped Labour

UK will be 'run for the wealthy and powerful' if Tories retain power
Rare and exclusive video shows the horrific price paid by activists for challenging the rule of jihadist extremists in Syria

The price to be paid for challenging the rule of extremists

A revolution now 'consuming its own children'
Welcome to the world of Megagames

Welcome to the world of Megagames

300 players take part in Watch the Skies! board game in London
'Nymphomaniac' actress reveals what it was really like to star in one of the most explicit films ever

Charlotte Gainsbourg on 'Nymphomaniac'

Starring in one of the most explicit films ever
Robert Fisk in Abu Dhabi: The Emirates' out-of-sight migrant workers helping to build the dream projects of its rulers

Robert Fisk in Abu Dhabi

The Emirates' out-of-sight migrant workers helping to build the dream projects of its rulers
Vince Cable interview: Charging fees for employment tribunals was 'a very bad move'

Vince Cable exclusive interview

Charging fees for employment tribunals was 'a very bad move'
Iwan Rheon interview: Game of Thrones star returns to his Welsh roots to record debut album

Iwan Rheon is returning to his Welsh roots

Rheon is best known for his role as the Bastard of Bolton. It's gruelling playing a sadistic torturer, he tells Craig McLean, but it hasn't stopped him recording an album of Welsh psychedelia
Morne Hardenberg interview: Cameraman for BBC's upcoming show Shark on filming the ocean's most dangerous predator

It's time for my close-up

Meet the man who films great whites for a living
Increasing numbers of homeless people in America keep their mobile phones on the streets

Homeless people keep mobile phones

A homeless person with a smartphone is a common sight in the US. And that's creating a network where the 'hobo' community can share information - and fight stigma - like never before