Restraint is order of the day



Europe Editor

For the Bosnian government and its most ardent Western supporters, the UN withdrawal from Gorazde represents another damning piece of evidence that Western governments are selling out the long-suffering Muslim population of Bosnia.

For Western politicians who consider themselves realists, however, the withdrawal merely recognises that no peace settlement will last unless Gorazde, the only area of eastern Bosnia still in government hands, is eventually allocated to the Bosnian Serbs.

There remains, in principle, a Western commitment to use massive aerial force against the Bosnian Serbs if they launch an offensive to seize Gorazde, a UN-protected "safe area". However, the withdrawal of British and Ukrainian UN forces follows the collapse of Srebrenica and Zepa, the other Muslim enclaves of eastern Bosnia, and brings into question the West's determination to ensure a post-war Muslim presence in the Drina valley.

From an outsider's point of view, it may seem neater to allow the Bosnian Serbs total control of eastern Bosnia in return for the establishment of a more compact, easily defendable Muslim-Croat region in western and central Bosnia. But if such are the lines along which Western governments have been thinking, it becomes all the harder to understand why they identified Gorazde last month as a trip-wire that, if pulled by the Bosnian Serbs, would activate the most severe Nato military response of the war.

One explanation is that the Clinton administration and European governments fear condemnation at home and in the court of international opinion as appeasers of the Bosnian Serbs. The Drina valley has witnessed some of the war's most brutal "ethnic cleansing" of Muslims, and to sign away the entire area to the Bosnian Serbs certainly smacks of craven surrender to aggression.

Nevertheless the US decided to build its latest peace initiative partly upon the idea of territorial swaps between the Bosnian Serbs and the Muslim- Croat alliance, contending that this would offer the best long-term guarantee of Bosnian Muslim security. Unfortunately, no sooner had President Alija Izetbegovic of Bosnia denounced the suggestion that Gorazde could form part of these exchanges than the Clinton administration hastily backed off, giving the impression that its diplomacy lacked consistency and resolution.

The German government, too, reassured the Bosnian Muslim leadership that no one was going to force territorial solutions on the Muslims against their will. Britain, on the other hand, primarily concerned with extracting its peace-keepers from Gorazde without harm, has had little to say about the merits of sustaining a Muslim outpost in eastern Bosnia.

Confusion over Gorazde's future, coupled with the disaster last month in Srebrenica, where Bosnian Serb forces stand accused of massacring several thousand unarmed Muslims, suggest that it would be wiser for all Western governments to acknowledge that there were serious flaws right from the start in the concept of Bosnian "safe areas". The UN Security Council declared six such zones in April and May 1993, but some were clearly much less safe than others.

Srebrenica and Zepa, were the most vulnerable, with Gorazde not far behind. Bihac, in north-western Bosnia, suffered a 1,000-day Bosnian Serb siege that ended when Croatia recaptured the adjoining rebel Serb region of Krajina.

The other two "safe areas" are Sarajevo and Tuzla, representing the Bosnian government's heartland. Despite their dependence on international humanitarian aid and their exposure to continual bombardment from Bosnian Serb heavy weapons, Sarajevo and Tuzla have never been in the same danger of collapse as the enclaves of eastern Bosnia.

For more than two years, the Western powers neither committed the resources nor displayed the will and unity necessary to dissuade the Bosnian Serbs from overrunning Srebrenica and Zepa. Gorazde took a pounding in early 1994 without prompting an effective response from Nato.

Could it be different this time? If the Bosnian Serbs are sensible, they will refrain from attacking Gorazde, calculating that it must fall into their hands. Military factors at play elsewhere in Bosnia also argue in favour of restraint.

Croatia's recapture of Krajina and advance into western Bosnia, coupled with the liberation of Bihac, mean that the Bosnian Serbs have their work cut out to defend their western front. It is more important for them to hold the line there than to risk a confrontation with Nato over Gorazde, which is a strategic sideshow. But logic does not always determine Bosnian Serb behaviour.

Start your day with The Independent, sign up for daily news emails
Have you tried new the Independent Digital Edition apps?
ebooksAn introduction to the ground rules of British democracy
Latest stories from i100
Have you tried new the Independent Digital Edition apps?
Independent Dating

By clicking 'Search' you
are agreeing to our
Terms of Use.

iJobs Job Widget
iJobs General

Recruitment Genius: Health and Social Care NVQ Assessor

£17000 - £23000 per annum: Recruitment Genius: It is also essential that you p...

Recruitment Genius: Service / Installation Engineer - South East England

£25000 - £30000 per annum: Recruitment Genius: The successful Service Engineer...

Recruitment Genius: ICT Infrastructure Manager

£27000 - £30000 per annum: Recruitment Genius: This Edinburgh city centre scho...

Recruitment Genius: Massage Therapist / Sports Therapist / Physio / Osteopath

£12000 - £24000 per annum: Recruitment Genius: An opportunity has arisen for o...

Day In a Page

John Palmer: 'Goldfinger' of British crime was murdered, say police

Murder of the Brink’s-MAT mastermind

'Goldfinger' of British crime's life ended in a blaze of bullets, say police
Forget little green men - aliens will look like humans, says Cambridge University evolution expert

Forget little green men

Leading evolutionary biologist says aliens will look like humans
The Real Stories of Migrant Britain: An Algerian scientist adjusts to life working in a kebab shop

The Real Stories of Migrant Britain

An Algerian scientist struggles to adjust to her new life working in a Scottish kebab shop
Bodyworlds museum: Dr Gunther von Hagens has battled legal threats, Parkinson's disease, and the threat of bankruptcy

Dying dream of Doctor Death

Dr Gunther von Hagens has battled legal threats, Parkinson's disease, and the threat of bankruptcy
UK heatwave: Temperature reaches 39.8 degrees on Central Line - the sweatiest place in London

39.8 degrees recorded on Tube

There's hot (London) and too damn hot (the Underground). Simon Usborne braved the Central line to discover what its passengers suffer
Kitchens go hi-tech: From robot chefs to recipe-shopping apps, computerised cooking is coming

Computerised cooking is coming

From apps that automatically make shopping lists from your recipe books to smart ovens and robot chefs, Kevin Maney rounds up innovations to make your mouth water
Jessie Cave interview: The Harry Potter star has published a feminist collection of cartoons

Jessie Cave's feminist cartoons

The Harry Potter star tells Alice Jones how a one-night stand changed her life
Football Beyond Borders: Even the most distruptive pupils score at homework club

Education: Football Beyond Borders

Add football to an after-school homework club, and even the naughtiest boys can score
10 best barbecue books

Fire up the barbie: 10 best barbecue books

We've got Bibles to get you grilling and smoking like a true south American pro
Wimbledon 2015: Nick Bollettieri - Junk balls and chop and slice are only way 5ft 1in Kurumi Nara can live with Petra Kvitova’s power

Nick Bollettieri's Wimbledon Files

Junk balls and chop and slice are only way 5ft 1in Kurumi Nara can live with Petra Kvitova’s power
Ron Dennis exclusive: ‘This is one of the best McLaren teams ever – we are going to do it’

‘This is one of the best McLaren teams ever – we are going to do it’

Ron Dennis shrugs off a poor start to the season in an exclusive interview, and says the glory days will come back
Seifeddine Rezgui: What motivated a shy student to kill 38 holidaymakers in Tunisia?

Making of a killer

What motivated a shy student to kill 38 holidaymakers in Tunisia?
UK Heatwave: Temperatures on the tube are going to exceed the legal limit for transporting cattle

Just when you thought your commute couldn't get any worse...

Heatwave will see temperatures on the Tube exceed legal limit for transporting cattle
Exclusive - The Real Stories of Migrant Britain: Swapping Bucharest for London

The Real Stories of Migrant Britain

Meet the man who swapped Romania for the UK in a bid to provide for his family, only to discover that the home he left behind wasn't quite what it seemed
Cheaper energy on the way, but it's not all sunshine and rainbows

Cheaper energy on the way, but it's not all sunshine and rainbows

Solar power will help bring down electricity prices over the next five years, according to a new report. But it’s cheap imports of ‘dirty power’ that will lower them the most