Swedes balk at social cost of joining EU EU calls for a cut too far from Sweden Swedes balk at biting the EU bullet

"WITHOUT immediate economic support measures, the municipality will be threatened by something akin to economic meltdown. The effects of such a development for the region and the country can only be imagined."

It sounded like an appeal from Liverpool or Lille or some other traditionally hard-pressed area, but this message was sent to the Swedish government last week from Malmo, Sweden's third biggest city. The leaders of Malmo's municipal council, Ilmar Reepalu and Percy Liedholm, said its 1994 budget deficit was 1.3bn kronor (£110m) and, though falling, would still be 800m kronor this year.

Sited on the Sound opposite Copenhagen, Malmo has 235,000 inhabitants, a much-admired 14th-century church, and a football team that regularly qualifies for Europe. Yet it has slipped into financial crisis since recession struck Sweden in 1990, and its problems reflect the deeper malaise gripping the nation as it adjusts to membership of the European Union.

Two choices face Sweden in the next five years. Either it will become a member of a European "inner core", led by Germany and France, that proceeds to monetary and political union, or the Swedes will decide that the price for joining that lite is too high in terms of the surgery that would have to be performed on their world-famous welfare state.

Relatively low economic growth and productivity, lavish welfare payments and a bloated and expensive public sector have burdened Sweden with budget deficits and public debts so large that the country seems unlikely to be able to join the inner core countries when they move to a single currency, probably after 1999. Unless, that is, Sweden attacks the root of the problem: a system in which two out of every three Swedes, whether state employees, pensioners, students, parents, children or the unemployed, depend on the state for a large part of their income.

In last September's elections, a coalition of voters with a stake in the status quo kicked out the conservative Moderate Party, which had begun to restructure the welfare state, and returned the Social Democrats to power. To ask the party that created the welfare state to turn against its strongest supporters is, as the Swedes might say, like asking a crayfish to vote for August -which is when the crustaceans are traditionally eaten in Sweden.

The importance that Swedes attach to consensus politics and social harmony is also so high that many people wonder if the economic sacrifices needed for currency union would not prove too divisive. Even now, unemployment is running at 8 per cent, or 13 per cent if people on various government- supported working and training schemes are included.

Big business has long argued for scaling down the welfare state and integrating Sweden more closely into Europe. Even before last November's referendum on EU membership, Volvo, Electrolux and other Swedish multinationals had shifted most of their production and employment abroad.

Swedes have not yet begun to debate the merits of a single currency at anything like the level that Britain is experiencing. But many Swedes are suspicious of closer integration - as was shown during the run-up to the referendum, when the fear that Brussels might forbid Swedish men to indulge in their centuries-old habit of taking moist oral snuff was exploited to great effect by the No campaign.

Then there is the neutrality issue. Sweden will have observer status in the Western European Union, the EU's embryonic defence arm, but a poll last week showed 70 per cent of Swedes opposed to abandoning the 180-year tradition of neutrality.

Some of the EU's most ardent integrationists are already worried that Sweden may emulate Britain and Denmark and try to stay on the sidelines with special arrangements for itself. In remarks that raised eyebrows in government circles in Stockholm, the European Commissioner for competition policy, Karel van Miert, warned this month that Sweden and the two other new members, Austria and Finland, must not go down the British and Danish road. "You should not be standing in the Community with one foot in and one foot out," he said.

Start your day with The Independent, sign up for daily news emails
PROMOTED VIDEO
Have you tried new the Independent Digital Edition apps?
ebooks
ebooksA special investigation by Andy McSmith
Latest stories from i100
Have you tried new the Independent Digital Edition apps?
Independent Dating
and  

By clicking 'Search' you
are agreeing to our
Terms of Use.

iJobs Job Widget
iJobs General

Tradewind Recruitment: PMLD Teacher

Negotiable: Tradewind Recruitment: PMLD Teacher A specialist primary school i...

Recruitment Genius: Online Media Sales Trainee

£15000 - £30000 per annum: Recruitment Genius: Now our rapidly expanding and A...

Recruitment Genius: Public House Manager / Management Couples

£15000 - £20000 per annum: Recruitment Genius: Are you passionate about great ...

Recruitment Genius: Production Planner

£20000 - £30000 per annum: Recruitment Genius: This fast growing reinforcing s...

Day In a Page

As in 1942, Germany must show restraint over Greece

As in 1942, Germany must show restraint over Greece

Mussolini tried to warn his ally of the danger of bringing the country to its knees. So should we, says Patrick Cockburn
Britain's widening poverty gap should be causing outrage at the start of the election campaign

The short stroll that should be our walk of shame

Courting the global elite has failed to benefit Britain, as the vast disparity in wealth on display in the capital shows
Homeless Veterans appeal: The rise of the working poor: when having a job cannot prevent poverty

Homeless Veterans appeal

The rise of the working poor: when having a job cannot prevent poverty
Prince Charles the saviour of the nation? A new book highlights concerns about how political he will be when he eventually becomes king

Prince Charles the saviour of the nation?

A new book highlights concerns about how political he will be when he eventually becomes king
How books can defeat Isis: Patrick Cockburn was able to update his agenda-setting 'The Rise of Islamic State' while under attack in Baghdad

How books can defeat Isis

Patrick Cockburn was able to update his agenda-setting 'The Rise of Islamic State' while under attack in Baghdad
Judith Hackitt: The myths of elf 'n' safety

Judith Hackitt: The myths of elf 'n' safety

She may be in charge of minimising our risks of injury, but the chair of the Health and Safety Executive still wants children to be able to hurt themselves
The open loathing between Barack Obama and Benjamin Netanyahu just got worse

The open loathing between Obama and Netanyahu just got worse

The Israeli PM's relationship with the Obama has always been chilly, but going over the President's head on Iran will do him no favours, says Rupert Cornwell
French chefs get 'le huff' as nation slips down global cuisine rankings

French chefs get 'le huff' as nation slips down global cuisine rankings

Fury at British best restaurants survey sees French magazine produce a rival list
Star choreographer Matthew Bourne gives young carers a chance to perform at Sadler's Wells

Young carers to make dance debut

What happened when superstar choreographer Matthew Bourne encouraged 27 teenage carers to think about themselves for once?
Design Council's 70th anniversary: Four of the most intriguing prototypes from Ones to Watch

Design Council's 70th anniversary

Four of the most intriguing prototypes from Ones to Watch
Dame Harriet Walter: The actress on learning what it is to age, plastic surgery, and her unease at being honoured by the establishment

Dame Harriet Walter interview

The actress on learning what it is to age, plastic surgery, and her unease at being honoured by the establishment
Art should not be a slave to the ideas driving it

Art should not be a slave to the ideas driving it

Critics of Tom Stoppard's new play seem to agree that cerebral can never trump character, says DJ Taylor
Bill Granger recipes: Our chef's winter salads will make you feel energised through February

Bill Granger's winter salads

Salads aren't just a bit on the side, says our chef - their crunch, colour and natural goodness are perfect for a midwinter pick-me-up
England vs Wales: Cool head George Ford ready to put out dragon fire

George Ford: Cool head ready to put out dragon fire

No 10’s calmness under pressure will be key for England in Cardiff
Michael Calvin: Time for Old Firm to put aside bigotry and forge new links

Michael Calvin's Last Word

Time for Old Firm to put aside bigotry and forge new links