Tehran goes gunning for the Kurds: Hugh Pope in Boulla, Iraq, witnesses attempts by Iran to deal with a people whom it decries as revolutionaries and plotters of 'world arrogance'

IN AN idyllic mountain valley in Iraqi Kurdistan, one of the most ancient fault-lines in the Middle East is opening up again. The Kurds, whose native land straddles parts of Iran, Iraq, Turkey and Syria, are in trouble again. In the village of Boulla, they are being attacked not by the Baghdad authorities, but by the Iranians. There have been skirmishes across the Iran-Iraq border as Iranian forces hammer the Kurdish dissidents. Every day or two, Iranian heavy-artillery shells shatter the peace of the valley.

For the past three months, Iranian forces have attacked villages and camps along the Iraqi border, trying to get the range of Iranian Kurdish rebels, whose modest main base, radio station and newspaper office are at Boulla, which consists of 50 small mud-roofed houses lost amid an oasis of walnut trees just inside the territory controlled since 1991 by the increasingly self-sufficient Kurdish rebels of Iraq.

'These attacks are not just for us,' said Selami Azizi, a former judge and political-bureau member of the Kurdistan Democratic Party-Iran (KDPI). 'Iran is worried. What is happening here has a direct effect on Iranian Kurdistan. They want to hit us and want to get rid of the government in Arbil (capital of Iraqi Kurdistan).'

Iranian warplanes even crossed into Iraqi airspace to attack the Boulla base in March, killing four people. The crew of the sole visible anti-aircraft gun said they were caught off-guard, believing they were protected by allied planes that patrol the valley as part of an air exclusion zone above Iraq's 36th parallel.

Iran has also throttled the main trade route between Iranian and Iraqi Kurdistan, having already bought cheaply the best equipment pillaged by Iraqi Kurdish guerrilla factions during their 1991 uprising. Only the traditional Kurdish art of smuggling still makes bottles of Iranian cola available on the streets of Iraqi Kurdish towns.

Not that Iran has neglected other means to do down the group it views as counter-revolutionaries and plotters of 'world arrogance'. Tehran's agents shot their two last leaders: Sadeq Sherefkandi in a Berlin cafe last year, and the legendary Abdurah man Ghassemlu in Vienna in 1988. The heir to this dangerous post is Mustapha Hijri, a Persian-literature graduate of Tehran university in his mid-forties. 'They invited Ghassemlu for talks in Vienna. At the end of the session the man from Tehran reached into his diplomatic case, pulled out a gun, shot Ghassemlu dead and escaped. Austria never did anything about it,' Mr Azizi said. He wiped his brow with the end of his cummerbund. He was ill with a bad fever, which he could only treat with aspirin: French doctors left the camp hospital after it was hit by a bomb.

Being a Kurdish guerrilla is not easy at the best of times, but the struggle of the Iranian Kurds is among the least known of those fighting for at least local self-determination for the Middle East's 20 million Kurds.

Yet the KDPI is one of the oldest groups, dating back 45 years to the brief flowering of the Kurdish republic of Mahabad. Aiming for autonomy and cultural rights rather than an independent Kurdish state, it has survived suppression by the Shah, the Islamic Republic and a split in its own ranks five years back.

Mr Azizi said that in the past 10 years they had lost 4,000 guerrillas and that 50,000 civilians had been killed. Their only success has been the introduction of some state-run broadcasts in Kurdish. Teaching and official use of Kurdish is still banned.

'They are much better equipped; they have all the advantages of a state. But they have no political base. Their only base is a fort on the top of each hilltop,' Mr Azizi said in the political bureau's small meeting-room, overlooked by maps of the world, a souvenir from a Socialist International congress in Peru and a clock running on Iranian time.

An Iranian Kurdish guerrilla recently back from a tour of duty said they were outmanned and outgunned, but were able to move freely the length and breadth of Iranian Kurdistan, fed and welcomed by local people. Like the other guerrillas, he claimed that the Tehran media deliberately ignored most of the clashes.

Tehran is facing the same problem as Ankara and Damascus in blocking the rise of Kurdish consciousness and the basing rights offered to rebel groups of all colours in 'liberated' Iraqi Kurdistan. Meetings in Ankara last November and in Tehran last March between the three states to block the emergence of an independent Kurdistan failed to agree on joint action.

Perhaps it should be no great surprise that there was mutual suspicion: Syria and Iran still harbour Turkish Kurdish guerrillas, Turkey and Syria look after Iraqi Kurdish guerrillas and the Iranian Kurds have a 'political relationship' with Iraq that allows them access to the outside world through Baghdad.

At a town base in Raniyeh, an hour's drive from Boulla by a steep rutted road flanked by hillsides strewn with mines, middle-aged Iranian Kurdish guerrilla officials emerged from the summer torpor and a flickering Iraqi Kurdish television replay of an antique Benny Hill show to complain that the West was slipping in its support for both them and human rights.

The shelling reminds them daily that Iran, like Turkey and Iraq, is far from tired of a military solution to its Kurdish problem.

Mr Azizi said that, whatever the West may think of the pragmatism of the Iranian President, Ali Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani: 'An akhund is still an akhund (a mullah is still a mullah) . . . their only differences are about methods of oppression.'

(Photograph omitted)

Suggested Topics
Start your day with The Independent, sign up for daily news emails
Have you tried new the Independent Digital Edition apps?
ebooksA year of political gossip, levity and intrigue from the sharpest pen in Westminster
The Tesco Hudl2: An exceptional Android tablet that's powerful, well-built and outstanding value

Life and Style
food + drinkAuthor DBC Pierre presents his guide to the morning after
Two christmas trees ,Moonbeam (2L), Moonchester (2R) and Santa Claus outside the Etihad Stadium
footballAll the action from today's games
Sarah Silverman (middle) with sister Reform Rabbi Susan Silverman (right) and sister actress Laura Silverman (left) at Jerusalem's Western Wall for feminist Hanuka candle-lighting ceremony
peopleControversial comedian stages pro-equality Hanukkah lighting during a protest at Jerusalem's Wailing Wall
Arts and Entertainment
The Bach Choir has been crowned the inaugural winner of Sky Arts’ show The Great Culture Quiz
arts + ents140-year-old choir declared winner of Sky Arts' 'The Great Culture Quiz'
Life and Style
food + drink
Latest stories from i100
Have you tried new the Independent Digital Edition apps?
Independent Dating

By clicking 'Search' you
are agreeing to our
Terms of Use.

iJobs Job Widget
iJobs General

Recruitment Genius: Finance Director

£65000 - £80000 per annum: Recruitment Genius: Finance Director required to jo...

Recruitment Genius: Medico-Legal Assistant

£15000 - £25000 per annum: Recruitment Genius: This is a unique opportunity fo...

Ashdown Group: (PHP / Python) - Global Media firm

£50000 per annum + 26 days holiday,pension: Ashdown Group: A highly successful...

The Jenrick Group: Quality Inspector

£27000 per annum + pension + holidays: The Jenrick Group: A Quality Technician...

Day In a Page

Homeless Veterans appeal: 'You look for someone who's an inspiration and try to be like them'

Homeless Veterans appeal

In 2010, Sgt Gary Jamieson stepped on an IED in Afghanistan and lost his legs and an arm. He reveals what, and who, helped him to make a remarkable recovery
Could cannabis oil reverse the effects of cancer?

Could cannabis oil reverse effects of cancer?

As a film following six patients receiving the controversial treatment is released, Kate Hilpern uncovers a very slippery issue
The Interview movie review: You can't see Seth Rogen and James Franco's Kim Jong Un assassination film, but you can read about it here

The Interview movie review

You can't see Seth Rogen and James Franco's Kim Jong Un assassination film, but you can read about it here
Serial mania has propelled podcasts into the cultural mainstream

How podcasts became mainstream

People have consumed gripping armchair investigation Serial with a relish typically reserved for box-set binges
Jesus Christ has become an unlikely pin-up for hipster marketing companies

Jesus Christ has become an unlikely pin-up

Kevin Lee Light, aka "Jesus", is the newest client of creative agency Mother while rival agency Anomaly has launched Sexy Jesus, depicting the Messiah in a series of Athena-style poses
Rosetta space mission voted most important scientific breakthrough of 2014

A memorable year for science – if not for mice

The most important scientific breakthroughs of 2014
Christmas cocktails to make you merry: From eggnog to Brown Betty and Rum Bumpo

Christmas cocktails to make you merry

Mulled wine is an essential seasonal treat. But now drinkers are rediscovering other traditional festive tipples. Angela Clutton raises a glass to Christmas cocktails
5 best activity trackers

Fitness technology: 5 best activity trackers

Up the ante in your regimen and change the habits of a lifetime with this wearable tech
Paul Scholes column: It's a little-known fact, but I have played one of the seven dwarves

Paul Scholes column

It's a little-known fact, but I have played one of the seven dwarves
Fifa's travelling circus once again steals limelight from real stars

Fifa's travelling circus once again steals limelight from real stars

Club World Cup kicked into the long grass by the continued farce surrounding Blatter, Garcia, Russia and Qatar
Frank Warren column: 2014 – boxing is back and winning new fans

Frank Warren: Boxing is back and winning new fans

2014 proves it's now one of sport's biggest hitters again
Jeb Bush vs Hillary Clinton: The power dynamics of the two first families

Jeb Bush vs Hillary Clinton

Karen Tumulty explores the power dynamics of the two first families
Stockholm is rivalling Silicon Valley with a hotbed of technology start-ups

Stockholm is rivalling Silicon Valley

The Swedish capital is home to two of the most popular video games in the world, as well as thousands of technology start-ups worth hundreds of millions of pounds – and it's all happened since 2009
Did Japanese workers really get their symbols mixed up and display Santa on a crucifix?

Crucified Santa: Urban myth refuses to die

The story goes that Japanese store workers created a life-size effigy of a smiling "Father Kurisumasu" attached to a facsimile of Our Lord's final instrument of torture
Jennifer Saunders and Kate Moss join David Walliams on set for TV adaptation of The Boy in the Dress

The Boy in the Dress: On set with the stars

Walliams' story about a boy who goes to school in a dress will be shown this Christmas