Voyage of hope ends in despair for boat people: Canberra's refugee policy is coming under fire, Robert Milliken writes from Sydney

THE FOUR boat people looked pale and downcast as they talked of their shattered dreams since their escape from Cambodia to Australia. 'Under Pol Pot and the Khmer Rouge, I lived for three years, eight months and 20 days,' said one young woman. 'Here, I have lived for almost three years. In both places it's the same: I have life, but no freedom.'

In March 1990 the woman and her companions were among 118 Cambodians crammed aboard a fishing boat which landed near Broome, north-west Australia, having negotiated stormy seas infested with sharks and pirates.

From Broome, the authorities flew the boat people to Melbourne, where they spent 17 months in a detention centre. Next stop was another centre at Villawood, near Sydney, where they have spent the past 16 months behind barbed-wire, seeking asylum in Australia as refugees. More than 650 such boat people have landed in Australia since 1989, mainly from Cambodia, Vietnam and China.

Only 65 have been granted refugee status. Some have escaped from Australian detention camps, left the country voluntarily or been deported. The remaining 406 have had their refugee applications rejected but remain incarcerated while they fight last-ditch court battles to stay.

Canberra's policy of locking up boat refugees has come under mounting fire from bodies such as the Australian Human Rights Commission and the Australian Council of Churches.

In May the government rushed through legislation to remove the power of courts to release asylum- seekers from detention. In December, the High Court, Australia's final-appeal court, found this unconstitutional. As a result, cases will begin this week on behalf of three Cambodian women who went on hunger strike last year, challenging their refugee status refusals and alleging they have been detained unlawfully. It will be the forerunner for 100 other such challenges.

Villawood detention compound is a hot, barren place. Among the 100 Cambodians inside, there have been several suicide attempts in the past two and a half years. Ten babies have been born. Three young women and a man, who begged to remain anonymous, said they would rather die in Australia than return to Cambodia. Two said the Khmer Rouge had killed their fathers. One of the women said she thought her brother, too, had died. One day, during her year and a half in the Melbourne detention centre, he turned up to visit her. He had been accepted as a bona fide refugee from a camp on the Thai border and was leading a new life in Australia. Despite this, her own application remains rejected.

Andrew Biro, who worked at Villawood as a welfare officer for a year, was sacked two months ago after sending officials in the Immigration Department a paper criticising the policy of keeping boat people locked away for years waiting for their cases to be resolved. Mr Biro believes a policy of 'humane deterrence' has been adopted in Australia based on its use on Cambodians in Thai border camps. 'You give them nothing to maintain their self-sufficiency, hope and self-esteem. You give them nothing to think about except their problems. In the end, you try to break them in the hope that they'll eventually go back voluntarily. It's a slow and deliberate form of mental torture. In the case of many Cambodians, the Immigration Department has achieved where Pol Pot failed: to break their resolve.'

The Immigration Department and its minister, Gerry Hand, say the reason why about 90 cent of the Cambodians have been rejected is that they do not meet the United Nations definition of refugees, as people who would face a real chance of persecution if they returned to their country of origin. But critics say Canberra's response is linked to its desire to lend credibility to the peace process in Cambodia, in negotiation of which Australia played a central role.

The peace process shows signs of deteriorating in the lead-up to UN-sponsored polls planned for May. To allow the Cambodian boat people to stay, say the government's critics, would be an implicit admission by Canberra that the peace process had failed and that Cambodia was again descending into chaos.

Seth Richardson, a lawyer who has been assisting the boat people, spent a year at another detention camp, in remote Port Hedland in Western Australia, where he interviewed Cambodians who said they had been raped and beaten by the Khmer Rouge and had witnessed prisoners, including their parents, being killed. 'Their psychological state has deteriorated severely from the length of their detention in Australia. Under 'humane deterrence' they have nightmares.'

After he visited the Port Hedland camp last year, Barry Hickey, the Catholic Archbishop of Perth, called on Canberra to allow the boat people to stay for at least two years 'until a proper assessment can be made of the situation in Cambodia and Vietnam'.

(Photograph omitted)

Suggested Topics
Start your day with The Independent, sign up for daily news emails
Have you tried new the Independent Digital Edition apps?
ebooksA celebration of British elections
Arts and Entertainment
No Offence
tvReview: No Offence has characters who are larger than life and yet somehow completely true to life at the same time spoiler alert
Arts and Entertainment
Sarah Lucas, I SCREAM DADDIO, Installation View, British Pavilion 2015
artWhy Sarah Lucas is the perfect choice to represent British art at the Venice Biennale
Arts and Entertainment
Billie Piper as Brona in Penny Dreadful
tvReview: It’s business as usual in Victorian London. Let’s hope that changes as we get further into the new series spoiler alert
Chuck Norris pictured in 1996
  • Get to the point
Latest stories from i100
Have you tried new the Independent Digital Edition apps?
Independent Dating

By clicking 'Search' you
are agreeing to our
Terms of Use.

iJobs Job Widget
iJobs General

SThree: Trainee Recruitment Consultant - Dublin

£13676.46 - £16411.61 per annum + OTE: SThree: SThree Trainee Recruitment Cons...

Ashdown Group: Marketing or Business Graduate Opportunity - Norwich - £22,000

£18000 - £22000 per annum + training: Ashdown Group: Business and Marketing Gr...

SThree: Trainee Recruitment Consultant

£20000 - £25000 per annum + Commission: SThree: Are you great at building rela...

Ashdown Group: Database Analyst - Birmingham - £22,000 plus benefits

£20000 - £22000 per annum + excellent benefits: Ashdown Group: Application Sup...

Day In a Page

General Election 2015: Ed Miliband's unlikely journey from hapless geek to heart-throb

Miliband's unlikely journey from hapless geek to heart-throb

He was meant to be Labour's biggest handicap - but has become almost an asset
General Election 2015: A guide to the smaller parties, from the the National Health Action Party to the Church of the Militant Elvis Party

On the margins

From Militant Elvis to Women's Equality: a guide to the underdogs standing in the election
Amr Darrag: Ex-Muslim Brotherhood minister in exile still believes Egypt's military regime can be replaced with 'moderate' Islamic rule

'This is the battle of young Egypt for the future of our country'

Ex-Muslim Brotherhood minister Amr Darrag still believes the opposition can rid Egypt of its military regime and replace it with 'moderate' Islamic rule, he tells Robert Fisk
Why patients must rely less on doctors: Improving our own health is the 'blockbuster drug of the century'

Why patients must rely less on doctors

Improving our own health is the 'blockbuster drug of the century'
Sarah Lucas is the perfect artist to represent Britain at the Venice Biennale

Flesh in Venice

Sarah Lucas has filled the British pavilion at the Venice Biennale with slinky cats and casts of her female friends' private parts. It makes you proud to be a woman, says Karen Wright
11 best anti-ageing day creams

11 best anti-ageing day creams

Slow down the ageing process with one of these high-performance, hardworking anti-agers
Juventus 2 Real Madrid 1: Five things we learnt, including Iker Casillas is past it and Carlos Tevez remains effective

Juventus vs Real Madrid

Five things we learnt from the Italian's Champions League first leg win over the Spanish giants
Ashes 2015: Test series looks a lost cause for England... whoever takes over as ECB director of cricket

Ashes series looks a lost cause for England...

Whoever takes over as ECB director of cricket, says Stephen Brenkley
Fishing for votes with Nigel Farage: The Ukip leader shows how he can work an audience as he casts his line to the disaffected of Grimsby

Fishing is on Nigel Farage's mind

Ukip leader casts a line to the disaffected
Who is bombing whom in the Middle East? It's amazing they don't all hit each other

Who is bombing whom in the Middle East?

Robert Fisk untangles the countries and factions
China's influence on fashion: At the top of the game both creatively and commercially

China's influence on fashion

At the top of the game both creatively and commercially
Lord O’Donnell: Former cabinet secretary on the election and life away from the levers of power

The man known as GOD has a reputation for getting the job done

Lord O'Donnell's three principles of rule
Rainbow shades: It's all bright on the night

Rainbow shades

It's all bright on the night
'It was first time I had ever tasted chocolate. I kept a piece, and when Amsterdam was liberated, I gave it to the first Allied soldier I saw'

Bread from heaven

Dutch survivors thank RAF for World War II drop that saved millions
Britain will be 'run for the wealthy and powerful' if Tories retain power - Labour

How 'the Axe' helped Labour

UK will be 'run for the wealthy and powerful' if Tories retain power