War sinks its teeth ever deeper into Somalia: The world is still averting its gaze from its most savage conflict, writes Richard Dowden

THE WARNINGS of catastrophe went unheeded. The rest of the world took no interest. Somalia tore itself to pieces. This woman and child outside a makeshift hospital at Merca, on the coast, are among the luckier people who have made it to a place where there is food, water and medical care.

Tens, possibly hundreds, of thousands have died either directly or indirectly from civil war in Somalia in the past two years. It is the worst human catastrophe in the world, worse than Yugoslavia. Even now, five months after a signed ceasefire, Digfer Hospital in Mogadishu is receiving 30 or 40 people a day suffering from bullet wounds.

Andrew Natsios of the United States Agency for International Development estimates 2,000 people are dying each day in and around the capital city, Mogadishu. The city has become one huge feeding centre but, according to aid workers, the food is not reaching the groups in most need because of banditry, looting and corruption.

'The idea was to get as much food into the city as possible so that the price would fall and the aid agencies could then target the vulnerable groups,' David Shearer of Save the Children Fund in Mogadishu said. 'But there is so much extortion . . . bribery and theft that it is impossible. The food is not reaching the people who need it.'

There were hopes that other parts of the country might survive war and drought better than the capital, but these have recently been shattered. In Baidoa, 150 miles from Mogadishu, the Red Cross estimates that 7,000 out of the town's 40,000 people have died so far this year from starvation. Peasant farmers were driven from their fields.

Somalia is also suffering from severe drought, which led to famine, but the war has prevented the distribution of food aid. One in six Somalis are now displaced, either in gruesome refugee camps in Kenya or squatting in the barren Somali countryside searching for something to eat. The Red Cross estimates that 2 million out of the total population of about 8 million are facing starvation and that many of those are in inaccessible places.

Mogadishu is a battleground of two armies, one led by General Mohammed Farah Aideed, who fought a guerrilla war to overthrow the old dictator Siad Barre, and the other by Ali Mahdi Mohamed, who was declared interim president after Mr Barre fled in January last year. The struggle is partly between these two men and partly between their sub-clans. Both are members of the Hawiye clan but General Aideed is from the Habar Gadir sub-clan and Ali Mahdi is Abgal.

The traditional systems of settling inter-clan disputes have all failed. The two armies are ill-disciplined and the city, like most of southern Somalia, is at the mercy of gangs of gunmen who take whatever they want and kill whoever stands in their way. The feeding centres run by the Red Cross - some 400 of them throughout the country - and those run by other aid agencies provide the only sanctuaries in the country.

On Thursday, 18 months after central authority collapsed, the United Nations arrived in the form of 47 unarmed military observers who are to monitor a ceasefire signed five months ago. The Hercules transport plane that finally brought in the UN troops was delayed by bureacratic bungling in Kenya and then got stuck in the soft sand at the end of the runway. The troops are supposed to deploy to each side of the city but no one, not even the Red Cross, travels in Somalia without armed protection. The possibility of bringing UN peace monitors into Mogadishu was first mooted at the beginning of the year and was agreed after lengthy negotiations. Their deployment was postponed for two weeks after Ali Mahdi allegedly used a plane bearing the UN emblem to fly ammunition and money to Mogadishu from Nairobi. It appeared that a Russian Antonov-32, chartered for UN relief flights to Mogadishu, had been used to fly tons of Somali banknotes printed in Britain to Ali Mahdi for paying his troops. General Aideed accused the UN of complicity but dropped his objections after the UN denied involvement and Ali Mahdi agreed to stop disbursing the money.

The Red Cross, one of the few aid agencies to keep its staff in Mogadishu throughout the war, is spending more than a quarter of its total dollars 500m (pounds 260m) aid budget on Somalia this year. It is feeding about 500,000 people each day throughout the country. Four of its staff members have been killed and several others injured. The British government this week gave pounds 2.5m to the Red Cross appeal for medical supplies, plastic sheeting and tents.

More than 250 Somali refugees who reached the Kenyan port of Mombasa in a Jamaican-registered cargo ship on Friday were denied permission to disembark yesterday. The provincial commissioner was reported to have said the nearby refugee camp that houses 25,618 of the nearly 156,000 Somali refugees in Kenya was too congested.

(Photograph omitted)

Suggested Topics
Voices
On the last day of campaigning before the polling booths open, the SNP leader has written to voters in a final attempt to convince them to vote for independence
scotland decidesIs a huge gamble on oil keeping First Minister up at night?
Arts and Entertainment
Rosalind Buckland, the inspiration for Cider with Rosie died this week
booksBut what is it like to be the person who inspires a classic work of art?
Life and Style
techApple has just launched its latest mobile operating software – so what should you do first?
News
A male driver reverses his Vauxhall Astra from a tow truck
newsThe 'extremely dangerous' attempt to avoid being impounded has been heavily criticised
PROMOTED VIDEO
Have you tried new the Independent Digital Edition apps?
News
ebooksAn unforgettable anthology of contemporary reportage
Arts and Entertainment
Lionel Messi in action for Barcelona
filmSo what makes the little man tick?
Arts and Entertainment
tvReview: An undercooked end (spoiler alert)
News
i100
Arts and Entertainment
Pharrell dismissed the controversy surrounding
musicThe singer said 'the last thing I want to do is degrade'
Sport
Cesc Fabregas celebrates his first Chelsea goal
footballChelsea vs Schalke match report
Arts and Entertainment
Toby Jones (left) and Mackenzie Crook in BBC4’s new comedy The Detectorists
tvMackenzie Crook's 'Detectorists' makes the hobby look 'dysfunctional', they say
Life and Style
fashion

Olympic diver has made his modelling debut for Adidas

News
i100
Latest stories from i100
Have you tried new the Independent Digital Edition apps?
Independent Dating
and  

By clicking 'Search' you
are agreeing to our
Terms of Use.

iJobs Job Widget
iJobs General

Maths Teacher

£110 - £200 per day: Randstad Education Leeds: Secondary Maths Teacher for spe...

Maths Teacher

£90 - £160 per day: Randstad Education Leeds: Secondary Science Teacher (mater...

Maths Teacher

£110 - £200 per day: Randstad Education Leeds: Secondary Maths Teacher for an ...

Maths Teacher

£22000 - £37000 per annum: Randstad Education Leeds: A West Yorkshire School i...

Day In a Page

Mystery of the Ground Zero wedding photo

A shot in the dark

Mystery of the wedding photo from Ground Zero
His life, the universe and everything

His life, the universe and everything

New biography sheds light on comic genius of Douglas Adams
Save us from small screen superheroes

Save us from small screen superheroes

Shows like Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D are little more than marketing tools
Reach for the skies

Reach for the skies

From pools to football pitches, rooftop living is looking up
These are the 12 best hotel spas in the UK

12 best hotel spas in the UK

Some hotels go all out on facilities; others stand out for the sheer quality of treatments
These Iranian-controlled Shia militias used to specialise in killing American soldiers. Now they are fighting Isis, backed up by US airstrikes

Widespread fear of Isis is producing strange bedfellows

Iranian-controlled Shia militias that used to kill American soldiers are now fighting Isis, helped by US airstrikes
Topshop goes part Athena poster, part last spring Prada

Topshop goes part Athena poster, part last spring Prada

Shoppers don't come to Topshop for the unique
How to make a Lego masterpiece

How to make a Lego masterpiece

Toy breaks out of the nursery and heads for the gallery
Meet the ‘Endies’ – city dwellers who are too poor to have fun

Meet the ‘Endies’ – city dwellers who are too poor to have fun

Urbanites are cursed with an acronym pointing to Employed but No Disposable Income or Savings
Paisley’s decision to make peace with IRA enemies might remind the Arabs of Sadat

Ian Paisley’s decision to make peace with his IRA enemies

His Save Ulster from Sodomy campaign would surely have been supported by many a Sunni imam
'She was a singer, a superstar, an addict, but to me, her mother, she is simply Amy'

'She was a singer, a superstar, an addict, but to me, her mother, she is simply Amy'

Exclusive extract from Janis Winehouse's poignant new memoir
Is this the role to win Cumberbatch an Oscar?

Is this the role to win Cumberbatch an Oscar?

The Imitation Game, film review
England and Roy Hodgson take a joint step towards redemption in Basel

England and Hodgson take a joint step towards redemption

Welbeck double puts England on the road to Euro 2016
Relatives fight over Vivian Maier’s rare photos

Relatives fight over Vivian Maier’s rare photos

Pictures removed from public view as courts decide ownership
‘Fashion has to be fun. It’s a big business, not a cure for cancer’

‘Fashion has to be fun. It’s a big business, not a cure for cancer’

Donatella Versace at New York Fashion Week