White rhinos radio back from edge of extinction

Wildlife rangers in Zaire are using a new weapon in their war on poachers,

The rhino's horn - for which it has been hunted close to extinction - may yet help to save the beast from being wiped out. In Africa's remote interior a scheme has been launched to implant radio transmitters in the horns of the critically endangered northern white rhino.

By monitoring the animals, from the air rangers can help protect them from ruthless poachers who have reduced their number to fewer than 30. So far five rhinos have been immobilised by dart guns and fitted with transmitters, and there are plans to implant 10 more over the next 12 months.

It is a delicate and dangerous task for the scientists - rhinos are not only notorious for their short tempers, but can also prove surprisingly fleet of foot - but the operation poses risks for the animal itself, which can die of stress while under the anaesthetic. The operation to insert the transmitter into the horn must be performed with skill and speed. Once a hole has been drilled and the apparatus has been implanted, the cavity is filled with dental acrylic, and the animal can be revived.

Without such ingenious conservation methods, a bleak future awaits the northern white rhino, probably the rarest large mammal on earth. It is genetically different from its more prolific southern cousin, but both sub-species are in fact grey: the "white" in its name is a corruption of the Dutch weit, meaning "wide". White rhinos have broad, square lower lips, adapted for grazing short grass, while black rhinos (which are also grey) have pointed upper lips for foraging in trees. Only 29 northern white rhinos, of which four are breeding females, are known to survive in the wild. They live in Garamaba national park, an area the size of Northumberland in Zaire's north-eastern corner. "Ideally, they would all be fitted with transmitters," said Jean-Pierre d'Huart of the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) which runs the rhino protection programme in Garamba. "But, even though the risk of the animal dying under sedation is small, each case has to be seriously considered. To lose even one rhino is a catastrophe."

Not discovered until the early part of this century, the northern white rhino once roamed across a considerable area of central Africa. But by 1980, poaching for horn had reduced the population to fewer than 1,000 animals. By 1984, when the WWF started its protection programme at Garamba, the number was down to 15.

Until recently it seemed that things were improving for the northern white rhino. Then, earlier this year, a male called Bawensi and a pregnant female named Juillet were slaughtered by poachers. "Their horns were cut," said Mr d'Huart, "but we can't say for sure the poachers were specifically looking for rhinos. Buffalos are the main target for food and elephants are being poached for ivory. Both the rhinos were killed with automatic weapons."

The prime suspects are the Sudan People's Liberation Army which since 1983 has been fighting the Khartoum government to prevent the imposition of Islam on southern Sudan. Park staff blame the recent upsurge in poaching on rebels who can cross the border without hindrance. A rhino provides both food for fighters and horn for sale to Yemen, where it is turned into highly-prized dagger handles. However, the Zairean army is not above suspicion: its soldiers, often unpaid, are notorious for their looting and alternative money-making schemes.

"Two Zairean guards have been killed over the last couple of years," said Mr d'Huart, "and a number of poachers are also reported to have been killed. This is an open war fought in the bush - victory belongs to the ones who shoot first. Unfortunately, the poachers are far more numerous than the guards."

The Zairean government is doing little or nothing to ensure the survival of Garamba, or of any other national institution for that matter. "Nature conservation in a country in a shambles comes very low down the list of government priorities," said the WWF official. "Our aim is to provide increased protection and monitor individual animals more closely. More trained park guards are badly needed."

WWF is spending pounds 115,000 a year on its Garamba rhino project, but estimates that double this amount is needed. More income might be generated through tourism, but as long as Zaire remains so politically insecure, only the most intrepid are likely to visit Garamba.

Suggested Topics
Start your day with The Independent, sign up for daily news emails
PROMOTED VIDEO
Have you tried new the Independent Digital Edition apps?
ebooks
ebooksA special investigation by Andy McSmith
Latest stories from i100
Have you tried new the Independent Digital Edition apps?
Independent Dating
and  

By clicking 'Search' you
are agreeing to our
Terms of Use.

iJobs Job Widget
iJobs General

Tradewind Recruitment: Phase Co-ordinator for Foundation and Key Stage 1

Negotiable: Tradewind Recruitment: Phase Co-ordinator for Foundation and Key S...

Tradewind Recruitment: SEN Teacher

Negotiable: Tradewind Recruitment: SEN Teacher We have a fantastic special n...

Tradewind Recruitment: History Teacher

Negotiable: Tradewind Recruitment: My client is an 11-18 all ability co-educat...

Tradewind Recruitment: Year 6 Teacher

£100 - £150 per day: Tradewind Recruitment: Year 6 Teacher Birmingham Jan 2015...

Day In a Page

Isis hostage crisis: The prisoner swap has only one purpose for the militants - recognition its Islamic State exists and that foreign nations acknowledge its power

Isis hostage crisis

The prisoner swap has only one purpose for the militants - recognition its Islamic State exists and that foreign nations acknowledge its power, says Robert Fisk
Missing salvage expert who found $50m of sunken treasure before disappearing, tracked down at last

The runaway buccaneers and the ship full of gold

Salvage expert Tommy Thompson found sunken treasure worth millions. Then he vanished... until now
Homeless Veterans appeal: ‘If you’re hard on the world you are hard on yourself’

Homeless Veterans appeal: ‘If you’re hard on the world you are hard on yourself’

Maverick artist Grayson Perry backs our campaign
Assisted Dying Bill: I want to be able to decide about my own death - I want to have control of my life

Assisted Dying Bill: 'I want control of my life'

This week the Assisted Dying Bill is debated in the Lords. Virginia Ironside, who has already made plans for her own self-deliverance, argues that it's time we allowed people a humane, compassionate death
Move over, kale - cabbage is the new rising star

Cabbage is king again

Sophie Morris banishes thoughts of soggy school dinners and turns over a new leaf
11 best winter skin treats

Give your moisturiser a helping hand: 11 best winter skin treats

Get an extra boost of nourishment from one of these hard-working products
Paul Scholes column: The more Jose Mourinho attempts to influence match officials, the more they are likely to ignore him

Paul Scholes column

The more Jose Mourinho attempts to influence match officials, the more they are likely to ignore him
Frank Warren column: No cigar, but pots of money: here come the Cubans

Frank Warren's Ringside

No cigar, but pots of money: here come the Cubans
Isis hostage crisis: Militant group stands strong as its numerous enemies fail to find a common plan to defeat it

Isis stands strong as its numerous enemies fail to find a common plan to defeat it

The jihadis are being squeezed militarily and economically, but there is no sign of an implosion, says Patrick Cockburn
Virtual reality thrusts viewers into the frontline of global events - and puts film-goers at the heart of the action

Virtual reality: Seeing is believing

Virtual reality thrusts viewers into the frontline of global events - and puts film-goers at the heart of the action
Homeless Veterans appeal: MP says Coalition ‘not doing enough’

Homeless Veterans appeal

MP says Coalition ‘not doing enough’ to help
Larry David, Steve Coogan and other comedians share stories of depression in new documentary

Comedians share stories of depression

The director of the new documentary, Kevin Pollak, tells Jessica Barrett how he got them to talk
Has The Archers lost the plot with it's spicy storylines?

Has The Archers lost the plot?

A growing number of listeners are voicing their discontent over the rural soap's spicy storylines; so loudly that even the BBC's director-general seems worried, says Simon Kelner
English Heritage adds 14 post-war office buildings to its protected lists

14 office buildings added to protected lists

Christopher Beanland explores the underrated appeal of these palaces of pen-pushing
Human skull discovery in Israel proves humans lived side-by-side with Neanderthals

Human skull discovery in Israel proves humans lived side-by-side with Neanderthals

Scientists unearthed the cranial fragments from Manot Cave in West Galilee