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The evacuation of Dunkirk - 73 years on

Today marks the anniversary of the end of the Dunkirk evacuations during World War II

Kennedy declares ‘Ich bin ein Berliner’ in West Berlin in 1963

A Berliner in 1963 – but did former US president John F Kennedy once admire Adolf Hitler?

The young JFK praised 'superior' Nordic races during visits to Germany

The price of pacifism: Refusing to go to war is finally being recognised as a brave act

From the Second World War refusenik to the 19-year-old Israeli, Holly Williams talks to five people who risked shame and suffering to take a stand as conscientious objector.

Dambuster crew members with a Lancaster bomber, pictured at a reunion in 1967

Dambusters remembered, 70 years on: Celebrations this week will mark the famed wartime mission

The Dambusters squadron, whose daring and audacious raid during the Second World War is often held up as an example of bravery and ingenuity, will be celebrated around Britain this week which marks the 70th anniversary of the May 1943 mission, codenamed "Operation Chastise".

The moment the Hindenburg suffered the first of three explosions over the Lakehurst naval air station in New Jersey on 6 May 1937. Thirty-six people, including one ground crew, were killed

Hindenburg mystery solved after 76 years

Scientists believe that a series of events sparked by static electricity lead to the 1937 explosion

Philippe Charlier, a forensic medical examiner, addresses reporters during a news conference held near Versailles

'Brutal' Richard's I's 'lion' heart was soaked in holy balm to ease his passage into heaven

Autopsy of 12th-century monarchy reveals heart embalmed in purifying frankincense

Israeli investigative journalist and gold hunter Yaron Svoray

Israeli scours German lake for Jewish gold looted by Nazis

An Israeli investigative journalist has launched a search for nearly half-a-ton of Jewish-owned gold and platinum believed to have been stolen by the Nazis and dumped in a remote lake north of Berlin during the last days of the Second World War.

Battle of battles: You name our finest hour

The National Army Museum wants to know what Britons see as our most crucial military event. Jonathan Owen lists some of the candidates

Kravchuk, Shushkevich and Yeltsin sign the agreement

Reds not dead? Document that dissolved the Soviet Union goes missing

The historic document that heralded the collapse of the Soviet Union has gone missing from an archive in Belarus, according to one of its signatories.

The Mother Russia statue

Russia marks Stalingrad, 70 years on

The 87-metre high sword-wielding statue of Mother Russia dominates Volgograd's skyline, as Russians yesterday observed the 70th anniversary of the Red Army victory in the Battle of Stalingrad.

Soviet troops climb out of a trench during the Battle of Stalingrad

Return to Stalingrad: Nostalgia for Uncle Joe alive and well in Volgograd

The name has changed, but the city remains defined by the brutal battle that ended 70 years ago

On a mission David Cundall (on the left) at RAF Mingaladon

Some of our Spitfires are missing: Doubts over existence of 160 WW2 fighter planes in Burma

A former collaborator of David Cundall – the maverick behind the claims – calls him a ‘dreamer’

Stanley Coombe, a 91-year-old former British soldier, poses with a photo of a Spitfire

British team seeking lost Spitfires in Burma makes its first discovery

An excavation team searching for buried Spitfires in Burma has found a wooden crate believed to contain one of the aircraft. The team lowered a camera into the crate in the Kachin state capital, Myitkyina, but muddy water has stopped them identifying the contents. It was not clear how much damage the water may have caused and searchers could not definitively say what was inside the crate. But David Cundall, the British aviation enthusiast who is leading the hunt for the rare aircraft, called the results "very encouraging".

Britain has still 22 countries to invade

Unfinished business? The 22 countries worldwide that Britain's not yet invaded

According to a new study, of the 193 countries in the world, Britain has invaded all but 22. The figures come from a new book by Stuart Laycock called All the Countries We've Ever Invaded and counts everything from full-scale invasions – Afghanistan – to piratical expeditions backed by the government – Ecuador.

Red Army troops storm a building, and German prisoners, below, during the Battle of Stalingrad

Revealed: The forgotten secrets of Stalingrad

It was the bloodiest battle of World War Two – so brutal the Soviet Union suppressed the truth. Now it has been revealed

Sport
Luis Suarez looks towards the crowd during the 2-1 victory over England
sport
Life and Style
Cheesecake frozen yoghurt by Constance and Mathilde Lorenzi
food + drinkThink outside the cool box for this summer’s frozen treats
News
John Barrowman kisses his male “bride” at a mock Gretna Green during the Commonwealth Games opening ceremony
peopleBarrowman's opening ceremony message to Commonwealth countries where he would be sent to prison for being gay
Sport
Sir Bradley Wiggins removes his silver medal after the podium ceremony for the men’s 4,000m team pursuit in Glasgow yesterday
Commonwealth games Disappointment for Sir Bradley in team pursuit final as England are forced to settle for silver
Sport
Alistair Brownlee (right) celebrates with his gold medal after winning the men’s triathlon alongside brother Jonny (left), who got silver
England's Jodie Stimpson won the women’s triathlon in the morning
Arts and Entertainment
Jamie Dornan stars as Christian Grey in the Fifty Shades of Grey movie
filmFirst look at Jamie Dornan in Fifty Shades of Grey trailor
Life and Style
Phillips Idowu, Stella McCartney and Jessica Ennis
fashionMcCartney to continue designing Team GB Olympics kit until 2016
Voices
voicesGood for Lana Del Rey for helping kill that myth, writes Grace Dent
Sport
Shinji Kagawa and Reece James celebrate after the latter scores in Manchester United's 7-0 victory over LA Galaxy
football
Life and Style
fashion Designs are part of feminist art project by a British student
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Burgundy, the River Rhone & Provence – MS Swiss Corona - seven nights from £999pp
Lake Maggiore, Orta and the Matterhorn – seven nights from £899pp
Sicily – seven nights from £939pp
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Backhanders, bribery and abuses of power have soared in China as economy surges

Bribery and abuses of power soar in China

The bribery is fuelled by the surge in China's economy but the rules of corruption are subtle and unspoken, finds Evan Osnos, as he learns the dark arts from a master
Commonwealth Games 2014: Highland terriers stole the show at the opening ceremony

Highland terriers steal the show at opening ceremony

Gillian Orr explores why a dog loved by film stars and presidents is finally having its day
German art world rocked as artists use renowned fat sculpture to distil schnapps

Brewing the fat from artwork angers widow of sculptor

Part of Joseph Beuys' 1982 sculpture 'Fettecke' used to distil schnapps
BBC's The Secret History of Our Streets reveals a fascinating window into Britain's past

BBC takes viewers back down memory lane

The Secret History of Our Streets, which returns with three films looking at Scottish streets, is the inverse of Benefits Street - delivering warmth instead of cynicism
Joe, film review: Nicolas Cage delivers an astonishing performance in low budget drama

Nicolas Cage shines in low-budget drama Joe

Cage plays an ex-con in David Gordon Green's independent drama, which has been adapted from a novel by Larry Brown
How to make your own gourmet ice lollies, granitas, slushy cocktails and frozen yoghurt

Make your own ice lollies and frozen yoghurt

Think outside the cool box for this summer's tempting frozen treats
Ford Fiesta is UK's most popular car of all-time, with sales topping 4.1 million since 1976

Fiesta is UK's most popular car of all-time

Sales have topped 4.1 million since 1976. To celebrate this milestone, four Independent writers recall their Fiestas with pride
10 best reed diffusers

Heaven scent: 10 best reed diffusers

Keep your rooms smelling summery and fresh with one of these subtle but distinctive home fragrances that’ll last you months
Commonwealth Games 2014: Female boxers set to compete for first time

Female boxers set to compete at Commonwealth Games for first time

There’s no favourites and with no headguards anything could happen
Five things we’ve learned so far about Manchester United under Louis van Gaal

Five things we’ve learned so far about United under Van Gaal

It’s impossible to avoid the impression that the Dutch manager is playing to the gallery a little
Screwing your way to the top? Good for Lana Del Rey for helping kill that myth

Screwing your way to the top?

Good for Lana Del Rey for helping kill that myth, says Grace Dent
Will the young Britons fighting in Syria be allowed to return home and resume their lives?

Will Britons fighting in Syria be able to resume their lives?

Tony Blair's Terrorism Act 2006 has made it an offence to take part in military action abroad with a "political, ideological, religious or racial motive"
Beyoncé poses as Rosie the Riveter, the wartime poster girl who became a feminist pin-up

Beyoncé poses as Rosie the Riveter

The wartime poster girl became the ultimate American symbol of female empowerment
The quest to find the perfect pair of earphones: Are custom, 3D printed earbuds the solution?

The quest to find the perfect pair of earphones

Earphones don't fit properly, offer mediocre audio quality and can even be painful. So the quest to design the perfect pair is music to Seth Stevenson's ears
US Army's shooting star: Lt-Col Steven Cole is the man Hollywood calls when it wants to borrow a tank or check a military uniform

Meet the US Army's shooting star

Lt-Col Steven Cole is the man Hollywood calls when it wants to borrow a tank or check a military uniform