India then reached 57 for 1 by the close after losing opener Vikram Rathore for five when he was caught by Ricky Ponting at midwicket off the fast bowler Paul Reiffel.
Leg-spinner Kumble took 4 for 63, the left-arm spinner Joshi 2 for 36 and Kapoor took 2 for 30 with his off-breaks as Australia collapsed from 81 for 1.
The paceman Venkatesh Prasad and a run-out accounted for the other two wickets after Australia won the toss on a surface that was expected to aid the slow bowlers.
The Australian coach, Geoff Marsh, said: "We did play a couple of loose strokes but the Indian spinners bowled extremely well.
"We'd have liked to score 50 or 60 more runs but the game is still wide open. The ball's turning and it's keeping up and down.''
Top scorer Michael Slater made his 44 in 130 minutes off 96 deliveries and included six fours.
(First day; Australia won toss)
AUSTRALIA - First innings
M J Slater c and b Kumble 44
*M A Taylor lbw b Prasad 27
R T Ponting b Kapoor 14
M E Waugh c Dravid b Joshi 26
S R Waugh c Mongia b Kapoor 0
M G Bevan lbw b Joshi 26
I A Healy b Kumble 17
B G Hogg c Rathore b Kumble 1
P R Reiffel c Dravid b Kumble 7
P E McIntyre not out 6
G D McGrath run out 6
Extras (b4 lb3 nb1) 8
Fall: 1-47 2-81 3-93 4-94 5-143 6-144 7-147 8-169 9-170
Bowling: Prasad 12-4-34-1; Johnson 4-1-12-0; Joshi 23-7-36-2; Kumble 24-7-63-4; Kapoor 10-3-30-2.
INDIA - First Innings
V Rathore c Ponting b Reiffel 5
N R Mongia not out 26
S Ganguly not out 19
Extras (b4 nb3) 7
Total (for 1) 57
To bat: S R Tendulkar, *M Azharuddin, R S Dravid, S Joshi, A R Kapoor, A Kumble, V Prasad, D Johnson.
Bowling (to date): McGrath 4-0-8-0; Reiffel 6-2-13-1; S Waugh 4-1-13- 0; McIntyre 4-1-10-0; Hogg 3-1-9-0.Reuse content