The former Northamptonshire leg-spinner, who finished with 6 for 70, and the seamer Javagal Srinath, with 3 for 63, made full use of the hard, bouncy pitch.
India responded in positive fashion when they began their first innings, hitting 48 without loss off eight Pakistan overs before the close.
The match, the first Test between the neighbouring countries for more than a decade, was held under tight security with 3,000 armed police and 600 paramilitary troopers deployed in and around the M A Chidambaram stadium.
Pakistan, who won the toss and decided to bat, were reduced to 91 for 5 at one stage before a watchful 53 from Yousuf Youhana began a recovery. He and Moin Khan put on 63 runs for the sixth wicket and then Moin, who top-scored with 60, added a further 60 with Wasim Akram for the seventh wicket to give some respectability to the score.
Yousuf hit six boundaries and a towering straight six off Kumble before he was trapped leg before by the spin of Sachin Tendulkar. Srinath began the top-order collapse when he had Shahid Afridi caught at first slip by Saurav Ganguly diving to his left.
Saeed Anwar, who had looked in good form, striking four boundaries in his 24, was the next to go, trapped leg before as he shouldered arms to a ball from Srinath that cut back. Kumble caught Inzamam-ul-Haq off his own bowling in his first over as the batsman tried to turn a full toss but got a leading edge, and then trapped Ijaz Ahmad as he padded up to a ball that straightened.
Srinath struck again immediately after lunch when bowled Salim Malik with a ball that cut back sharply and Yousuf fell shortly before tea. Kumble dominated the final session, wrapping up the Pakistan innings by taking the final four wickets. It was his 12th five-wicket haul in Tests.
The Indian opener Sadagopan Ramesh, making his Test debut, thrilled his home crowd with an unbeaten 30 that included five boundaries, four of them off Wasim Akram. His fellow opener Vangipurappu Laxman helped himself to two fours in one Waqar Younis over.
First day; Pakistan won toss
PAKISTAN - First Innings
Saeed Anwar lbw b Srinath 24
Shahid Afridi c Ganguly b Srinath 11
Ijaz Ahmad lbw b Kumble 13
Inzamam-ul-Haq c and b Kumble 10
Yousaf Youhana lbw b Tendulkar 53
Salim Malik b Srinath 8
Moin Khan c Ganguly b Kumble 60
*Wasim Akram c Laxman b Kumble 38
Saqlain Mushtaq lbw b Kumble 2
Nadeem Khan c Dravid b Kumble 8
Waqar Younis not out 0
Extras (lb5, nb6) 11
Fall: 1-32, 2-41, 3-61, 4-66, 5-91, 6-154, 7-214, 8-227, 9-237, 10-238.
Bowling: Srinath 15-3-63-3 (nb6); Venkatesh Prasad 16-1-54-0; Kumble 24.5-7-70-6; Joshi 21-7-36-0; Tendulkar 3-0-10-1.
INDIA - First Innings
S Ramesh not out 30
V V S Laxman not out 18
Total (for 0) 48
To bat: R S Dravid, S R Tendulkar, *M Azharuddin, S C Ganguly, N R Mongia, A Kumble, J Srinath, Venkatesh Prasad, S B Joshi.
Bowling: Wasim Akram 4-1-21-0, Waqar Younis 3-0-23-0, Mushtaq Ahmed 1- 0-4-0.Reuse content