Sussex, recovering from a poor start, amassed 273 for 4 after choosing to bat, with Gloucestershire falling short despite Jack Russell's 66 off 72 balls.
The spinners Amer Khan and Nicky Phillips both claimed three wickets as the visitors were dismissed with 15 deliveries remaining.
Taylor, the former Kent captain, put Sussex firmly on top in a third- wicket stand of 208 off 34 overs with Mark Newell, who made 87 on his debut in the competition. This set a new Sussex record for any wicket in the B&H Cup and took Taylor past 2,000 runs in the competition.
Taylor, whose slow start saw him take 31 deliveries to reach nine, then raced to his 50 from a further 31 balls, doing so in emphatic style by sweeping the spinner Richard Davis for six.
Taylor powered to his 100 off only 39 more deliveries and had hammered 11 fours and a six when he was run out with two overs of the innings remaining.
Sussex must now beat Surrey in their final group game to have any chance of reaching the quarter-finals.
Kent kept their 100 per cent record in the competition by beating British Universities by four wickets at Canterbury yesterday. Nigel Llong, with 75 off 65 balls, guided them home with five overs to spare. Kent, however, may be without their slow left-armer Min Patel, who played in two Tests for England last year, for the rest of the season. Patel has a knee injury.
Sussex, hoping to beat Surrey and Warwickshire to be the first county to play a Sunday League match under lights, have confirmed that the fixture against Essex at Hove on Monday 16 June has been rescheduled for the previous day.Reuse content