India's Anil Kumble produced a stunning spell of spin bowling to rip through the Australia batting line-up and turn the second Test on its head.
Kumble took seven of Australia's final eight wickets to fall as the tourists slumped from 136 without loss to 235 all out on a remarkable opening day in Chennai.
Kumble ended with figures of seven for 48 off 17.3 overs while Australia's fall from power was summed up when they lost their final wicket to a farcical run-out, Glenn McGrath (2) finishing short of his ground to leave Simon Katich unbeaten on 36 at the other end.
Kumble's spin partner Harbhajan Singh made the crucial breakthrough.
Matthew Hayden and Justin Langer had each scored half-centuries before Harbhajan ripped out both in the space of three balls.
That brought Simon Katich and Damien Martyn to the crease and the two batsmen acquitted themselves well and were able to add 53 runs to the total before India grabbed their third wicket of the day, dismissing Martyn for 26.
After that crucial wicket, Kumble was virtually unplayable in the 20 overs after tea.
Almost immediately after the interval he sent back Darren Lehmann for a duck.
Next to fall was Michael Clarke (5), trapped lbw. And it was to get even better for the ecstatic Indians as Australia captain Adam Gilchrist (3), Shane Warne (4), Jason Gillespie (5) and Michael Kasprowicz (4) all fell in rapid succession before McGrath's run-out completed Australia's demise.
India will be delighted to have turned the game in their favour having been on the back foot for most of the morning after losing the toss.
The hosts are seeking to level up the four-match series at one-apiece having lost the opening match by 217 runs in Bangalore.
First day of five; Australia won toss
AUSTRALIA - First Innings
J L Langer c Dravid b Harbhajan Singh 71
M L Hayden c Laxman b Harbhajan Singh 58
S M Katich not out 36
D R Martyn c Yuvraj Singh b Kumble 26
D S Lehmann c Patel b Kumble 0
M J Clarke lbw b Kumble 5
*ÝA C Gilchrist c Yuvraj Singh b Kumble 3
S K Warne c and b Kumble 4
J N Gillespie c Kaif b Kumble 5
M S Kasprowicz c Laxman b Kumble 4
G D McGrath run out 2
Extras (b7 lb4 w1 nb4 pens 5) 21
Total (71.3 overs) 235
Fall: 1-136 2-136 3-189 4-191 5-204 6-210 7-216 8-224 9-228.
Bowling: Pathan 12-3-29-0; Khan 11-2-44-0; Harbhajan Singh 29-2-90-2; Kumble 17.3-4-48-7; Sehwag 2-1-8-0.
INDIA - First Innings
Yuvraj Singh c Gilchrist b Warne 8
V Sehwag not out 20
I K Pathan not out 0
Total (for 1, 13 overs) 28
To bat: R Dravid, *S C Ganguly, V V S Laxman, M Kaif, ÝP A Patel, A Kumble, Harbhajan Singh, Z Khan.
Bowling: McGrath 5-1-13-0; Gillespie 5-2-9-0; Warne 2-1-1-1; Kasprowicz 1-0-5-0.
Umpires: R E Koertzen (SA) and D R Shepherd (Eng).