The tourists triumphed by four wickets in the decider in Chittagong to hand the Tigers their first ODI series loss on their own turf for more than two years, having beaten Pakistan, India and South Africa in that time.
What is remarkable is that England clinched the series without any of their top four batsmen - with Jason Roy injured, Joe Root rested and Alex Hales and Eoin Morgan missing the tour for security reasons.
But they showed the strength in depth they possess as Sam Billings and Ben Duckett took advantage of the absences to press their claims for a permanent spot with half-centuries as England overhauled Bangladesh's 277 for six.
That handed Buttler victory in his first series leading England and he is now expected to hand the reins back to Morgan for the ODIs in India after Christmas.
Reflecting on captaining the side and the tour as a whole, he said: "It's been good. I have enjoyed the challenge. I've learnt as I've gone on.
"Physically it's been a tough tour for us, and mentally as well, with everything that's gone on before.
"To come here - a pretty young and inexperienced team - to win in Bangladesh, who have had success in their recent series, I thought we played really well but with room for improvement as well.
"It's great to learn when you're winning and good teams win games when they are not at their best. Moving forward, this tour will stand us in great stead."
Buttler took extra satisfaction from beating Bangladesh after a heated confrontation with several players, whom he felt took their celebrations too far, following his dismissal in the second ODI on Sunday.
Buttler was given an official reprimand by the International Cricket Council although opposite number Mashrafe Mortaza and Sabbir Rahman were fined 20 per cent of their match fees for their part in the incident.
When asked if it felt like England had enjoyed the last laugh, Buttler said: "It does a bit. It's definitely nice to win, especially after what happened.
"In a three-match series when you get to 1-1 it's great to win. It does feel pretty sweet to win the series. It was (nice to shake hands) and to look a few in the eye and say 'well played'.
"(The match) was pretty peaceful. But the most important thing was winning and it was great to do that."