Football: Match-fixing: Scandals: The bent and the banned

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The Independent Online
1997 The presidents of the Argentinian and Brazilian federations are accused by a referee of manipulating officials to help their national teams qualify for the 1994 World Cup. This follows the resignation of the head of Brazil's refereeing department after allegations that he has offered to influence referees in return for cash from club presidents.

1997 Porto president Jorge Pinto da Costa resigns as head of the body which appoints referees after being accused of bribery and intimidation. One allegation is that he bribed the referee of the 1985 Cup-Winners' Cup semi-final against Aberdeen.

1996 Swiss referee Kurt Rothlisberger is banned for life after offering to fix Zurich Grasshoppers' Champions League match with Auxerre.

1995 Ukrainian champions Dynamo Kiev are thrown out of the Champions' League after a referee reveals that Dynamo officials offered him money to swing a tie against Panathinaikos.

1993 Georgian side Dynamo Tblisi are expelled from the Champions' League for attempting to bribe the Turkish referee in their match against Linfield. Linfield are given a bye, though Tblisi are not banned from participating the following season.

1993 Marseilles, going for their fifth successive domestic title, offer players from Valenciennes a bribe to lose. The investigation uncovers six years of domestic and European match- rigging. Marseilles are stripped of the 1992-93 domestic title and 1993 European Cup, banned from Europe for a year and relegated. Two of their players are banned for life.

1993 On the last day of the Polish season, LKS Lodz have to beat Olimpia Poznan by three more goals than Legia Warsaw's winning margin over Wislaw Krakow to win the championship. Lodz win 6-0, Legia 7-1. The Polish FA fine the four clubs pounds 18,000 each and award the title to third-placed Lech Poznan.

1982 Standard Liege are chasing the Belgian title when their manager, Raymond Goethals, suggests his players offer their win bonuses to the players of opponents Waterschei. Liege win the league but, when the scandal emerges, are fined pounds 75,000. Thirteen players are banned from playing in Belgium for life, while Goethals is banned from managing in Belgium.

1980 Two gambling restaurateurs expose an Italian betting scam which involves match-fixing by several clubs, including Milan and Lazio. Milan's president and 11 players are banned for life.

1971 A defeat for German side Schalke 04 to relegation-threatened Armenia Bielfeld provokes a match-fixing investigation. More than 50 players, coaches and officials are punished.

1964 England international Peter Swan, the most high-profile culprit in the 1960s betting ring scandal, is found guilty of placing a bet on Ipswich beating his Sheffield Wednesday team. Swan is banned for life and jailed, as are nine others in a scandal involving almost 100 players and 16 clubs.

1905 Billy Meredith, the Manchester City captain, is banned for a season after offering his Aston Villa counterpart pounds 10 to throw a game. City's manager and former chairman are banned for life, two directors suspended and 17 players heavily fined.

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