Javier Mascherano has been charged with two counts of fraud by the Spanish tax authorities for more than €1.5million.
The Barcelona defender, who joined the Catalan club from Liverpool in 2010, is alleged to have sought to conceal earnings from image rights by using companies set up in the US and neighbouring Portugal.
A judge will rule on whether the case should go to trial.
The 31-year-old is accused of defrauding authorities of €587,822.01 (£434,681) in 2011 and €968,907.76 (£716,485.74) in 2012.
According to the public prosecutor's office, Mascherano, who has made no comment on the charges, has paid the money owed plus a further €200,000 (£147,895) of interest.
The total equals €1,756,729.77 (£1,302,803.33).
Barcelona team-mate Lionel Messi, and his father Jorge, were caught up in a similar case, but denied they have done anything wrong.
A judge has also previously accused Neymar of evading taxes.