Joshua climbed off the canvas to eventually stop the legendary Ukrainian in the 11th round and earn the biggest win of his young career and extend his record to an unblemished 19-0.
The victory cements Joshua as the leading heavyweight in the world and leaves him with his pick of opponents with big names seemingly lining up to take him on.
Who next for Anthony Joshua?
Who next for Anthony Joshua?
1/6 Who next?
Joshua sensationally defeated Wladimir Klitschko - so who's next?
2/6 Deontay Wilder
A fight between Joshua and America's WBC heavyweight champion Wilder, 31, would likely prove the richest in the heavyweight division. The combination of two charismatic, explosive punchers would appeal both in the UK and the US, but may have such commercial potential that they would choose to delay until next summer. Wilder was ringside at Wembley, but has also been linked to fighting Tony Bellew.
3/6 Joseph Parker
New Zealand's WBO champion Parker carries less threat and appeal than Wilder but also represents less of a risk. The 25-year-old had been scheduled to fight Tyson Fury's cousin Hughie until injury ruled the challenger out, and is one of only two fighters against which a unification match-up could be made.
4/6 Wladimir Klitschko
The 41-year-old has already revealed he has a rematch clause he can take advantage of, and that only another showdown with Joshua is capable of convincing him to fight on. Joshua has also already said he would be willing to fight the Ukrainian again, but beyond financial gain there seems little benefit for the champion. Having already beaten him so entertainingly, Klitschko represents a high-risk, low-reward opponent.
5/6 Tyson Fury
Immediately after his defeat of Klitschko, Joshua called out the fighter who is quickly becoming his biggest rival. The 28-year-old Fury unsurprisingly responded on Twitter, writing "challenge accepted". Both seem confident of victory and willing to fight each other, both have beaten Klitschko and both represent the other's most intriguing opponent within the UK. Fury's biggest challenge could yet come in regaining his boxing licence amid his struggles with depression.
6/6 Tony Bellew
The former WBC cruiserweight champion's unexpected defeat of David Haye has given him far more appeal in the heavyweight division than any would have predicted. He seems incapable of providing Joshua with much of a test, but the money involved in fighting the champion will become such that any potential offers will be tempting. A match-up between the two is also straightforward to make, given they are both promoted by Matchroom. The biggest question may be whether Matchroom would rather use the 34-year-old Liverpudlian to further build Wilder's reputation before the American eventually fights Joshua.
Klitschko has already hinted at a possible rematch while WBC champ Deontay Wilder has said he would relish a unification bout with an all-British clash with former world champion Tyson Fury is perhaps the most box office option of all.
And Joshua admits that he would like his next fight to capture the imagination of the public, whoever it may be against.
The Brit, whose fight against Klitschko was a played out amidst a backdrop of mutual respect, said: "At the end of the fight they (the British fans) cheered Wladimir but, yes it would be nice to fight a real villain.
"We can definitely find someone to dance with again, to bring that sort of attention again. Anyone with a belt is good, to add more to the (collection). We could rematch Klitschko again.
"I think that would be good because of the type of fight we had. And I think even guys without a belt would be good. Tyson Fury obviously hasn't got a belt.
"(Fury represents) a fight that would bring massive attention from the top to the bottom."
Fury has not fought beating Klitschko in November 2015 and last year he surrendered the titles he won in that fight to focus on his mental health problems.
It remains to be seen when, or if, Fury returns to the ring but both he and Joshua have been actively urging the other to make a potential showdown between the two undefeated heavyweights become a reality.
A rematch with 41-year-old Klitschko is also a possibility for Joshua and would prove a similarly lucrative and high-profile option to facing Fury.
When discussing a potential return with Joshua, Klitschko - whose points defeat by Fury in 2015 means he has lost twice in succession - insisted he had a rematch clause he could choose to exercise.
Klitschko inflicted a first knockdown of Joshua's career with a devastating right hand in the sixth round of Saturday's clash, but in the 11th the Ukrainian suffered his second and third knockdowns of the fight before being stopped on his feet - potentially reducing his desire for a rematch.
Joshua said: "I think he will want to (fight me again) because a fighter is the last one to know when it's time to stop. But I think the team around him, ie his wife, and they normally wear the trousers, and his brother (Vitali), they will advise him differently."
Additional reporting by PAReuse content