South Africa lock Eben Etzebeth has been cited for making contact with the “eye or eye area” of Scotland fly-half Greig Laidlaw.
The alleged incident occurred in the second half of the Springboks' 21-10 victory over the Scots at Murrayfield on Saturday.
Etzebeth, 21, will appear before an International Rugby Board disciplinary hearing on Tuesday.
South Africa play England at Twickenham on Saturday.
Argentina prop Juan Figallo has been cited for head-butting France captain Pascal Pape at the end of the Pumas' 39-22 defeat in Lille on Saturday night.
Figallo's hearing is listed for Wednesday. Argentina face Ireland in Dublin on Saturday.
The IRB's recommended sanctions for any player found guilty of 'eye-gouging' range from a low entry point of 12 weeks to a high entry point of 24 weeks with a maximum possible ban of three years.