Running up a winning average
Sunday 15 December 1996
A. In the Official Rules of Baseball, rule 10.18 states: An earned run is a run for which the pitcher is held accountable. In determining earned runs, the inning shall be reconstructed without the errors (which includes the catcher's interference) and passed balls, and the benefit of the doubt should always be given to the pitcher in determining which bases would have been reached by errorless play.
Rule 10.22 (e) states: To compute the Pitcher's earned-run average, multiply the total earned runs charged against his pitchings by nine, and divide the result by the total number of innings he pitched. An example: Six and one-third innings pitched and three earned runs is an earned run average of 4.26 (3 ER x 9 61/3 = 4.26).
As can be seen the purpose of this statistic is to calculate the number of earned runs a pitcher gives up per the nine innings of a regulation- length game. To qualify for the league leadership in the category, the pitcher must be credited with at least as many innings pitched as his team is scheduled to play, i.e. in modern major league baseball 162 innings. The lower the ERA the greater, generally, the pitcher's proficiency. In 1994 only four pitchers in the National League with the requisite number of innings, and only three in the American League had sub-3.00 ERAs. - Patrick Carroll, Crewkerne
Q. Nigel Mansell's imminent Formula One comeback prompts the question: which sportsman or woman has retired the most times? - A Brodkin, London N2
Q. I notice that the first seven names on Blackpool's teamsheet a fortnight ago all began with the letter B. Does anyone know of any team who have bettered this? - Miss K Brown, London W10
Q. In February 1988, during an FA Cup fifth-round tie, Arsenal's Nigel Winterburn taunted Brian McClair after the Manchester United player missed a penalty. Arsenal won 2-1. Two months later, Winterburn missed a penalty in the League Cup final against Luton Town, who won 3-2. Are there other examples of such poetic justice? - Neale S Smith, Luton
If you know the answers to any of these questions or have a sporting question of your own, write to Q&A, Sports Desk, Independent on Sunday, 1 Canada Square, London E14 5DL. Fax: 0171-293 2894
Latest in Sport
- 1 Woman falls to her death as she celebrates marriage proposal at the edge of Ibiza cliff
- 2 Venezuela Expo Tattoo 2015: Extreme body art from 'Vampire Woman' to 109mm earlobes
- 4 Dad attempts revenge on teenage daughter, plan backfires spectacularly
- 5 Ball pool for adults opens in London
9 reasons Greece's experiment with the radical left is doomed to failure
Have we reached 'peak food'? Shortages loom as global production rates slow
Greece elections: Syriza and EU on collision course after election win for left-wing party
British grandmother Lindsay Sandiford faces execution by firing squad in Indonesia
Liberal Democrat minister defends comments suggesting immigration causes pub closures
King Abdullah dead: We can't afford not to hold Saudi Arabia's royals to account
Negotiable: Tradewind Recruitment: My client is an excellent, large partially ...
£90 - £140 per day: Tradewind Recruitment: I am currently working in partnersh...
£100 - £150 per day: Tradewind Recruitment: Year 3 Teacher Birmingham Jan 2015...
£45000 - £50000 per annum + Excellent benefits: Ashdown Group: Lead Web Develo...