The Complete Guide To: Bavaria

Romantic castles and fairy-tale forests, medieval towns and villages, brown bears and golden beer - Germany's southern state has got it all, says Anthony Lambert


The southern state of Bavaria covers almost a fifth of Germany and conjures up images of dark forests, lakes, beer halls, "mad" King Ludwig and the Alps. The region escaped heavy bombing during the Second World War and consequently has many unspoilt towns that still have a medieval feel, with town walls encircling streets of timber-framed buildings with steep pitched roofs. It offers the best walking and cycling country in Germany, and a wealth of museums and galleries. Its capital, Munich, is said to have the best quality of life of any German city, and its excellent tram and U-Bahn system, and cycle and walking routes - some beside the river Isar - make it a pleasure to explore.


A good reason to start your visit in Munich is the biennial national garden festival (00 49 89 41 2005 41;, which opened on Thursday on the site of the city's old airport. Until 9 October, the landscaped park of 30,000 trees will have 25 changing displays with millions of flowers. For children, there are activities and playgrounds and swimming in the self-cleaning lake. Needless to say, there will be beer gardens galore. The festival is a 12-minute ride from the city centre on subway U2/U7 to Messestadt West. Open 9am to sunset, admission €14 (£10) adults, €3 (£2.15) children (includes travel on the underground).


The red-brick late-15th-century cathedral on Frauenplatz is a good place to orient oneself. To the north-east is the vast English Garden in which Unity Mitford shot herself on the day war was declared; it extends for miles out of the city. If you have only a day, the three Pinakothek galleries on Arcisstrasse should not be missed; the Old (Alte) Pinakothek displays works by old masters from the 14th-18th centuries, and has a fine collection of Rubens. Open 10am-5pm except Sunday, admission €5 (£3.50). The royal palace (the Residenz) on Max-Joseph-Platz has many collections, from Egyptian art to stamps, but the highlight is the Treasury, with its exquisite examples of medieval craftsmanship. Open 9am-6pm in summer, 10am-4pm in winter; admission €8 (£6).


Two "roads", the Romantic Road and the German Alpine Road, have been devised to help tourists take in a string of exceptional towns and mountain scenery. Neither road should be rushed. The 360km Romantic Road ( runs between the southern town of Füssen and Franconia's principal city, Würzburg. It passes through many places deserving exploration on foot. Situated on Forgensee, Füssen itself is Bavaria's highest town and a good base for exploring Ludwig II's castles. Among the Romantic Road's highlights are the fortified town of Landsberg am Lech; the ancient city of Augsburg with its fine banqueting hall and early-16th-century Fuggerei, the world's first housing settlement; the concentrically fortified Nordlingen, with its museum devoted to the nearby crater caused 15 million years ago by a meteorite a kilometre wide; the splendid gabled houses and watchtowers of Dinkelsbühl; Rothenburg for Germany's best-preserved medieval old town; and the vast baroque palace at Würzburg, with its Tiepolo fresco - a World Heritage Site.

The Alpine Road ( runs for almost 600km from Lindau on Lake Constance past Ludwig II's castles, the 1936 Olympic skiing resort of Garmisch-Partenkirchen and Berchtesgaden with its lakes, to Bad Reichenhall, founded on salt springs that fed into a saltworks with marble-lined passages, now a museum.


Of Bavaria's towns, the principal omissions are Passau, Nuremberg and Bamberg. Passau's wonderful baroque buildings include the cathedral, with its massive 17,774-pipe organ (daily concerts at noon). From the fortress-palace of the prince-bishops towering over the city you can see the confluence of three rivers. Open mid-March-October, 9am-5pm, admission €5 (£3.50).

Albrecht Dürer spent most of his life in Nuremberg, and the city's German National Museum has one of the best collections of his work. Located on Kartausergasse, it is open 10am-6pm daily except Monday, admission €5 (£3.50). Dürer's house, at Albrecht-Dürer Strasse 31, is also open to visitors, 10am-5pm daily except Monday, €5 (£3.50).

Bamberg is worth visiting for its curious old town hall, sited on an island off the middle of a two-arched bridge, and its old town is a World Heritage Site. The exterior of the early-17th-century New Residence impresses by its size rather than beauty, but the state rooms make up for it. Open 9am-6pm in summer, 10am-4pm in winter; admission €4 (£3). There is little to see at Oberammergau unless it is Passion-play time; the next is in 2010.


No. Cycling is feasible on the Romantic Road as its gradients are much gentler than the Alpine Road. And if you want to stay on the rails, Germany has an extensive and efficient network, Deutsche Bahn, which has a helpful UK office (08702 43 53 63; So it is easy to plan a car-free visit to towns and cities. Predictably, many of Bavaria's railway journeys are scenic delights, notably Munich-Lindau and Munich-Garmisch-Partekirchen, from where it is worth making a visit across the Austrian border to Innsbruck for the dizzying descent along the flank of the Inn valley.


Ludwig II may have been a political irrelevance by the time he ascended the Bavarian throne in 1864, but during the next 24 years, he built three of the world's most recognisable buildings, which attract millions of visitors every year. Near Oberammergau is the Linderhof, a rococo confection based on Ludwig I's hunting lodge, set in glorious grounds. Open 9am-6pm in summer, 10am-4pm in winter, €7 (£5) (00 49 88 22 92 03 49; On the 240-hectare island of Herreninsel in Chiemsee is his version of Versailles, Herrenchiemsee (9am-6pm; admission €3-€7/ £2-£5), complete with its own Hall of Mirrors (00 49 80 51 68 87 0; Most famous is Neuschwanstein Castle (00 49 83 62 93 98 80;, with its fairy-tale outline above the trees and lovely setting. Its swan grotto and ballroom decorated to a Parsifal theme reflect Ludwig's love of Wagner. Open 8.30am-5.30pm in summer, 10am-4pm in winter, €8 (£6).


Away from the Romantic Road there are many other interesting castles, such as Burghausen on the Austrian border, the country's biggest fortress, developed to withstand a Turkish incursion. The small schloss outside Coburg where Queen Victoria's husband, Prince Albert, was born is situated in a delightful park; Victoria liked the Rosenau Palace (00 49 95 63 30 84 10; so much that she said: "If I was not what I am, this would have been my real home." Open 9am-6pm in summer, 10am-4pm in winter; admission €6 (£4).


South of Munich lie over 20 sees (lakes), ranging from the tiny and remote Haslachersee, to Chiemsee with its 10 ships. The latter is easily reached from Munich by train (, including the short Chiemseebahn steam railway to the pier. Königsee near Berchtesgaden is enclosed by craggy peaks and served by a fleet of 21 electric-powered boats. The highest lake in Germany is the reservoir of Walchensee at 802m, set in woods near Bad Tölz. A cable car ascends 1,000m to the summit of Herzogstand, from where there are spectacular views. The mystery of Ludwig II's death will forever surround the Starnbergersee (30 minutes from Munich on line S6) on which stood Berg Castle, inherited from his father. Was the drowning of Ludwig and his doctor in 1886 murder or suicide? We will probably never know.


The great painter of melancholic German forest scenes, Caspar David Friedrich, would have been at home in the Bavarian Forest National Park between Passau and Regensburg, the largest continuous mountain forest in central Europe, which merges into the Bohemian Forest on the other side of the Czech border. Rolling wooded hills, quiet valleys and 60 peaks over 1,000m (3,280ft) high cover 6,000 square kilometres, concealing villages, ruined castles and even brown bears.


Rucksacks and walking poles are common sights on trains, and the rolling hills of the Allgäu, south-west of Munich, are criss-crossed by 6,000km of marked trails. The National Park has long-distance trails with accommodation en route.


There are plenty of cycle paths and it's easy to hire a bike. If you hire one in Munich, you can take it on the train to explore the countryside or towns. Most major stations hire bikes, and tourist offices have lists of hirers. A great way to see Munich is on a guided Mike's Bike Tour (00 49 89 24 54 99 88; They last four or seven hours and cost €22 (£16) or €33 (£24). There are many long-distance cycle routes in Bavaria, some following rivers (00 49 94 15 85 390; The Danube Cycle Route follows the river for 434km, from Donaueschingen to Passau; while the 248km Isar Cycle Route between Lenggries and Deggendorf cuts through Munich. There's also a 150km circular route in the National Forest.


Bavaria's fame for beer is based on centuries of devotion to the amber nectar. Some local beers originated in monastic brewhouses, and there are 629 breweries in the state. Among the strictly governed styles are wheat beers (Hefeweizen and Kristallweizen) and the strong March beer (Marzen). Munich's largest temple to beer, the Hofbraühaus (Platzl 9), also has live folk music; a more authentic experience can be had at Neuhauser Strasse 27, in the Augustiner-Gastätte, owned by the oldest brewery. Although the Oktoberfest (17 September-3 October, 10.30am-11.30pm) attracts over six million visitors to Munich, it is no Camra-style beerfest - only six varieties of beer are available.


Many consider Bavarian food the best in Germany. Meat is king: venison and boar cooked with wild fruits, white sausages, pork roasted in beer sauce, and Jägerschnitzel, a cutlet in mushroom sauce. Dumplings are also a speciality. A phrase book is useful - restaurants seldom have bilingual menus.


With its 12th-century turrets, Hotel Burg Wernberg (00 49 9604 9390; is the epitome of a Bavarian stronghold, but now features two restaurants and romantic bedrooms; doubles from €157 (£112) without breakfast. Schloss Eggersberg is in the heart of Bavaria on the river Altmuhl at Riedenburg; built c1600, the gabled castle has a terrace restaurant with great views, and you can even borrow a horse; doubles from €70 (£50) with breakfast. For a waterside retreat on Chiemsee, the chalet-style Landgasthof Lambach (00 49 8667 87990; has its own beach and linden tree-shaded beer garden.


Lufthansa (0870 833 0340; flies to Munich from Heathrow (from £98), Birmingham (from £143) and Manchester (from £134). British Airways (0870 850 9 850; flies from Heathrow (from £99), Gatwick (from £69) and Bristol (from £139). EasyJet (0905 821 0905; flies to Munich from Stansted (from £40.98). Reach the city by S-Bahn line 8 to Hauptbahnhof with a €9 day pass. The cheapest option by rail is via Brussels and Cologne (from £152), leaving Waterloo at 8.39am, arriving Munich at 8.30pm (Deutsche Bahn 08702 43 53 63; All prices are for return flights inclusive of taxes.


German National Tourist Office (020-7317 0908; Bavaria Tourist Office (00 49 89 21 23 970;


Richard Wagner himself had the wedge-shaped Festival House built in Bayreuth where his operas are still celebrated at an annual festival directed by his descendants. This year Tristan, Holländer, Tannhäuser, Parsifal and Lohengrin are being performed, from 25 July to 28 August (00 49 921 78 78 0; The use of wood inside the auditorium makes for superb acoustics.

Since 1875, the Munich Opera Festival has presented a very broad repertoire. Held between 27 June and 31 July in the National Theatre on Max-Joseph-Platz (00 49 89 21 85 19 20;, a post-war reconstruction of the neoclassical 1818 original, the festival this year is staging 18 productions by 12 composers, from Cavalli to Handel to Britten. Tickets cost €3-€240.

Arts and Entertainment
The Ridiculous Six has been produced by Adam Sandler, who also stars in it
filmNew controversy after nine Native American actors walked off set
Life and Style
The original ZX Spectrum was simple to plug into your TV and get playing on
techThirty years on, the ZX Spectrum is back, after a fashion
Have you tried new the Independent Digital Edition apps?
ebookHow to enjoy the perfect short break in 20 great cities
Independent Travel Videos
Independent Travel Videos
Simon Calder in Amsterdam
Independent Travel Videos
Simon Calder in Giverny
Independent Travel Videos
Simon Calder in St John's
Independent Travel Videos
  • Get to the point
Latest stories from i100
Have you tried new the Independent Digital Edition apps?
Independent Dating

By clicking 'Search' you
are agreeing to our
Terms of Use.

ES Rentals

    iJobs Job Widget
    iJobs Travel

    Recruitment Genius: Technical Supervisor

    £24800 - £29000 per annum: Recruitment Genius: As one of London's leading Muse...

    Recruitment Genius: Centre Manager

    £14000 - £18000 per annum: Recruitment Genius: This is an exciting opportunity...

    Guru Careers: Accountant

    £28 - 45k (DOE): Guru Careers: An Accountant is needed to take control of the ...

    Recruitment Genius: Hotel Assistant Manager

    £18000 - £20000 per annum: Recruitment Genius: This hotel in Chadderton is a p...

    Day In a Page

    'It was first time I had ever tasted chocolate. I kept a piece, and when Amsterdam was liberated, I gave it to the first Allied soldier I saw'

    Bread from heaven

    Dutch survivors thank RAF for World War II drop that saved millions
    Britain will be 'run for the wealthy and powerful' if Tories retain power - Labour

    How 'the Axe' helped Labour

    UK will be 'run for the wealthy and powerful' if Tories retain power
    Rare and exclusive video shows the horrific price paid by activists for challenging the rule of jihadist extremists in Syria

    The price to be paid for challenging the rule of extremists

    A revolution now 'consuming its own children'
    Welcome to the world of Megagames

    Welcome to the world of Megagames

    300 players take part in Watch the Skies! board game in London
    'Nymphomaniac' actress reveals what it was really like to star in one of the most explicit films ever

    Charlotte Gainsbourg on 'Nymphomaniac'

    Starring in one of the most explicit films ever
    Robert Fisk in Abu Dhabi: The Emirates' out-of-sight migrant workers helping to build the dream projects of its rulers

    Robert Fisk in Abu Dhabi

    The Emirates' out-of-sight migrant workers helping to build the dream projects of its rulers
    Vince Cable interview: Charging fees for employment tribunals was 'a very bad move'

    Vince Cable exclusive interview

    Charging fees for employment tribunals was 'a very bad move'
    Iwan Rheon interview: Game of Thrones star returns to his Welsh roots to record debut album

    Iwan Rheon is returning to his Welsh roots

    Rheon is best known for his role as the Bastard of Bolton. It's gruelling playing a sadistic torturer, he tells Craig McLean, but it hasn't stopped him recording an album of Welsh psychedelia
    Russell Brand's interview with Ed Miliband has got everyone talking about The Trews

    Everyone is talking about The Trews

    Russell Brand's 'true news' videos attract millions of viewers. But today's 'Milibrand' interview introduced his resolutely amateurish style to a whole new crowd
    Morne Hardenberg interview: Cameraman for BBC's upcoming show Shark on filming the ocean's most dangerous predator

    It's time for my close-up

    Meet the man who films great whites for a living
    Increasing numbers of homeless people in America keep their mobile phones on the streets

    Homeless people keep mobile phones

    A homeless person with a smartphone is a common sight in the US. And that's creating a network where the 'hobo' community can share information - and fight stigma - like never before
    'Queer saint' Peter Watson left his mark on British culture by bankrolling artworld giants

    'Queer saint' who bankrolled artworld giants

    British culture owes a huge debt to Peter Watson, says Michael Prodger
    Pushkin Prizes: Unusual exchange programme aims to bring countries together through culture

    Pushkin Prizes brings countries together

    Ten Scottish schoolchildren and their Russian peers attended a creative writing workshop in the Highlands this week
    14 best kids' hoodies

    14 best kids' hoodies

    Don't get caught out by that wind on the beach. Zip them up in a lightweight top to see them through summer to autumn
    Robert Fisk in Abu Dhabi: The acceptable face of the Emirates

    The acceptable face of the Emirates

    Has Abu Dhabi found a way to blend petrodollars with principles, asks Robert Fisk