The Tweed: Take a trip on a river flowing with history

The Tweed bursts forth in Scotland, and serves as a border with England before ending at Berwick. David Orkin explores one of the great rivers of the British Isles and finds that its waters teem with history

The Tweed: as a name, it may not resound with as much exoticism as, say, the Amazon or the Nile. It doesn't even stretch to 100 miles in length. But Britain's international river does steer an extraordinary course through Scotland and England on its way to the North Sea. Its source is Tweed's Well in the Lowther Hills, some six miles north of Moffat and located inside the western half of the Southern Uplands - the rugged border country that, in the past, governments in London found so difficult to subdue.

Close by are the sources of southern Scotland's two other great rivers: the Clyde, draining north-west, and the Annan draining south. A traditional Borders rhyme goes: "Annan, Tweed and Clyde a' rise oot o' ae hillside." From that hillside, the Tweed carves a jagged course across southern Scotland. The river serves as the border with England for 18 miles, but with five miles to go, it swerves through entirely English territory - a consequence of Berwick-upon-Tweed being taken by the English in 1482. It ends by creating a flourishing "s" shape around the town of Berwick.

That's "s" as in "salmon". Anglers - of whom there are many strung along its 97-mile course - will tell you that more Atlantic salmon is currently caught here than from any other river in the world. Fish has been a source of food and profit in the area since at least the 11th century, and satisfied customers include some English kings. Salted and packed in barrels, salmon was exported from Berwick-upon-Tweed. However, try fishing the Tweed for salmon on a Sunday, and you could be the one on the hook - you would be committing a criminal offence. Salmon apart, anglers come here for brown and sea trout, and grayling.

You may, of course, be visiting more for what lies on the bank of the river than for the water itself. And, as a natural frontier between England and Scotland, that's thousands of years of history. Evidence of the Roman fort of Trimontium (named for the triple peaks of the Eildon Hills) was uncovered on a high bluff overlooking the river Tweed in 1846 by railway builders driving a cutting through the site. It's just outside Melrose, and in the centre of town you'll find the Three Hills Roman Heritage Centre.

This is a river with a long and bloody history. The defeat of the Northumbrians in 1018 by Malcolm II at the Battle of Carham (close to Cornhill on Tweed) led to the first demarcation of the river Tweed as the border between Scotland and England. Above the river, a mile west of Peebles, Neidpath Castle was attacked by Oliver Cromwell, and required the longest assault on any stronghold south of the river Forth to force it to surrender. And high on a wooded hillside above Dryburgh, a 10-minute walk from a car park will lead you to the Wallace Monument. This statue of the great Scottish hero William Wallace was erected in 1814 and stands over 20ft high.

Between Coldstream and Berwick-upon-Tweed, high above a vital ford over the river Tweed, Norham Castle is one of the most impressive medieval fortresses in northern England. One of the strongest of the border castles, Norham was frequently attacked by the Scots. Besieged over a dozen times, it finally fell to James IV in 1513, shortly before his defeat at Flodden. Berwick-upon-Tweed is England's northernmost town and has a long history of being fought over by the English and the Scots. It is encircled by very well-preserved Elizabethan fortifications. A windy walk on the walls offers fine views of the river (and out to sea). Incidentally, this English town's football team, Berwick Rangers, plays in the Scottish League.

The river also holds a fascination for lovers of literary history. In the Eildon Hills, close to Trimontium, the Rhymer's Stone commemorates a 13th-century man who is often referred to as "Scotland's Nostradamus". Thomas of Ercildoune - more commonly known as Thomas the Rhymer - was a soothsayer whose fame, for a time, rivalled that of Merlin. After a liaison with a fairy queen, he is said to have predicted events including Scotland's defeat by the English at the Battle of Flodden, Scottish victory at Bannockburn, and the Union of the Crowns of Scotland and England.

Talking of legends, King Arthur himself was said to have been buried in the Eildon Hills above Melrose. Robert the Bruce's heart was buried in Melrose Abbey.

As with the panama hat (which actually originated in Ecuador), there is some confusion about Harris tweed. While Scotland's textile industry began in the early 18th century with the introduction of the spinning wheel, and many of the early mills were powered by the Tweed, it is thought that the name "tweed" for the fabric was derived from "tweel" (Scottish for twill) rather than from the river: Harris tweed is, of course, hand-woven on Harris, in the Outer Hebrides.

The river Tweed has also proved inspirational. Sir Walter Scott stayed in Clovenfords (east of Galashiels) for many summers, and sat beside the Tweed to write Marmion, The Lady of the Lake and Rob Roy. In 1812, he bought a house on the south bank of the Tweed, between Melrose and Galashiels, and had a grand home, Abbotsford, built. There he wrote his "Waverley" novels. The house was finally completed in 1824. In 1833, five months after Sir Walter's death, it was opened to the public and has welcomed visitors ever since. Not far away, his favourite picnic spot still affords a superb panorama of the river and the Eildon Hills: "Scott's View" is on the B6356 near Bemersyde. The writer was buried at Dryburgh Abbey, a secluded site surrounded on three sides by a loop of the Tweed.

Robert Burns was more of an Annan man - that river flows through the town where he lived with his family - but he visited Kelso in 1787 and commented in his journal on its charm, its enchanting views, and the fine bridges over the Tweed. His favourite bridge was swept away in a flood 10 years later. But another 18th-century figure takes poetic precedence: James Thomson,who wrote the stirring words of "Rule Britannia!", is commemorated by the Temple of the Muses, a handsome memorial erected in 1817 close to the Wallace Monument. The "temple" originally housed a (now long-lost) statue of Apollo; however, a new sculpture was installed five years ago.

The final literary connection to the Tweed is John Buchan, author of The Thirty-Nine Steps. When ennobled, Buchan became Lord Tweedsmuir, taking the name from an Upper Tweeddale hamlet near Broughton. It had been home to his grandfather, and Buchan spent many holidays there. The former church at the south end of Broughton village, where his relatives regularly worshipped and where he himself often attended services, is now the John Buchan Centre, and features a display of photographs and books illustrating Buchan's career and achievements. He even gets a walk named after him: the 13-mile John Buchan Way, between Peebles and Broughton, was officially opened in 2003. It runs parallel to the Tweed, and crosses it twice.

The 50 or so crossings of the Tweed are extremely diverse, both in age and in style. Close to the river's slightly disappointing source in a marshy depression, the first bridge comprises a few planks nailed together to cross the tiny stream. In Kelso, you can visit Rennie's Bridge, built by John Rennie as a prototype of his Waterloo Bridge in 1803. There's a fine 19th-century viaduct at Leaderfoot (just east of Melrose).

From Coldstream Bridge, completed in 1766, Robert Burns first left his "native soil", penning the expression in "Cotter's Saturday Night", as recorded on a commemorative plaque on the bridge. The most impressive crossing, though, is the last: Robert Stephenson's 28-arch Royal Border Bridge, which carries the main East Coast railway line, 126ft above the estuary, to the handsome stone station of Berwick. Its completion in 1850 also signalled the completion of the East Coast Main Line from London to Edinburgh, and today marks the end of the river Tweed itself.

TRAVELLER'S GUIDE

GETTING THERE

The nearest rail hub is at Berwick-upon-Tweed (National Rail Enquiries: 08457 484950; www.nationalrail.co.uk).

From Edinburgh airport, Peebles is a 40-minute drive and Berwick-upon-Tweed a 75-minute drive.

GETTING AROUND

The 100-mile Tweed Cycleway starts at Carstairs Junction and meets the Tweed near Broughton, before following the river closely to the sea. Bike hire is offered by Bike Sport (01896 830880; www.probikesport.com) of Innerleithen; and The Hub in the Forest (01721 721736; www.thehubintheforest.co.uk) in Glentress; or Wilson Cycles (01289 331476) in Berwick-upon-Tweed.

VISITING THERE

Three Hills Roman Heritage Centre, Market Square, Melrose (01896 822651; www.trimontium.net). Neidpath Castle, Peebles (01721 720333). Norham Castle, Northumberland (01289 304493; www.english-heritage.org.uk). Abbotsford, Melrose (01896 752043; www.scottsabbotsford.co.uk). Dryburgh Abbey, near St Boswells (01835 822381; www.historic-scotland.gov.uk). Traquair House, Innerleithen (01896 830323; www.traquair.co.uk). Floors Castle, Kelso (01573 223333; www.floorscastle.com).

Paxton House, Berwick-upon-Tweed (01289 386291; www.paxtonhouse.co.uk).

STAYING THERE

Dryburgh Abbey Hotel, St Boswells (01835 822261; www.dryburgh.co.uk). Ednam House Hotel, Kelso (01573 224168; www.ednam house.com). Windlestraw Lodge, Walkerburn (01896 870636; www.windlestraw.co.uk).

Tontine Hotel, Peebles (01721 720892; www.tontinehotel.com).

Clint Lodge, St Boswells (01835 822027; www.clintlodge.co.uk).

MORE INFORMATION

Visit Scotland: 0845 225 5121; www.visitscotland.com

News
The actress Geraldine McEwan was perhaps best known for playing Agatha Christie's detective, Miss Marple (Rex)
peopleShe won a Bafta in 1991 for her role in Oranges Are Not The Only Fruit
News
newsPatrick Cockburn was able to update his agenda-setting 'The Rise of Islamic State' while under attack in Baghdad
News
Robert Fraser, aka Groovy Bob
peopleA new show honours Robert Fraser, one of the era's forgotten players
Life and Style
Torsten Sherwood's Noook is a simple construction toy for creating mini-architecture
tech
Sport
David Silva celebrates with Sergio Aguero after equalising against Chelsea
footballChelsea 1 Manchester City 1
News
i100
PROMOTED VIDEO
News
The guide, since withdrawn, used illustrations and text to help people understand the court process (Getty)
newsMinistry of Justice gets law 'terribly wrong' in its guide to courts
News
Bobbi Kristina Brown with her mother Whitney Houston in 2011
people
News
Starting the day with a three-egg omelette could make people more charitable, according to new research
scienceFeed someone a big omelette, and they may give twice as much, thanks to a compound in the eggs
News
Top Gun actor Val Kilmer lost his small claims court battle in Van Nuys with the landlord of his Malibu mansion to get back his deposit after wallpapering over the kitchen cabinets
people
Independent Travel Videos
Independent Travel Videos
Simon Calder in Amsterdam
Independent Travel Videos
Simon Calder in Giverny
Independent Travel Videos
Simon Calder in St John's
Independent Travel Videos
Latest stories from i100
Have you tried new the Independent Digital Edition apps?
Independent Dating
and  

By clicking 'Search' you
are agreeing to our
Terms of Use.

ES Rentals

    iJobs Job Widget
    iJobs Travel

    Recruitment Genius: Car Sales Executive - Franchised Main Dealer

    £30000 - £40000 per annum: Recruitment Genius: This is a great opportunity for...

    Recruitment Genius: Group Sales Manager - Field Based

    £21000 - £22000 per annum: Recruitment Genius: Located on the stunning Sandban...

    Guru Careers: Email Marketing Specialist

    £26 - 35k (DOE): Guru Careers: An Email Marketing Specialist is needed to join...

    Recruitment Genius: Tour Drivers - UK & European

    Negotiable: Recruitment Genius: This is a fantastic opportunity to join a is a...

    Day In a Page

    As in 1942, Germany must show restraint over Greece

    As in 1942, Germany must show restraint over Greece

    Mussolini tried to warn his ally of the danger of bringing the country to its knees. So should we, says Patrick Cockburn
    Britain's widening poverty gap should be causing outrage at the start of the election campaign

    The short stroll that should be our walk of shame

    Courting the global elite has failed to benefit Britain, as the vast disparity in wealth on display in the capital shows
    Homeless Veterans appeal: The rise of the working poor: when having a job cannot prevent poverty

    Homeless Veterans appeal

    The rise of the working poor: when having a job cannot prevent poverty
    Prince Charles the saviour of the nation? A new book highlights concerns about how political he will be when he eventually becomes king

    Prince Charles the saviour of the nation?

    A new book highlights concerns about how political he will be when he eventually becomes king
    How books can defeat Isis: Patrick Cockburn was able to update his agenda-setting 'The Rise of Islamic State' while under attack in Baghdad

    How books can defeat Isis

    Patrick Cockburn was able to update his agenda-setting 'The Rise of Islamic State' while under attack in Baghdad
    Judith Hackitt: The myths of elf 'n' safety

    Judith Hackitt: The myths of elf 'n' safety

    She may be in charge of minimising our risks of injury, but the chair of the Health and Safety Executive still wants children to be able to hurt themselves
    The open loathing between Barack Obama and Benjamin Netanyahu just got worse

    The open loathing between Obama and Netanyahu just got worse

    The Israeli PM's relationship with the Obama has always been chilly, but going over the President's head on Iran will do him no favours, says Rupert Cornwell
    French chefs get 'le huff' as nation slips down global cuisine rankings

    French chefs get 'le huff' as nation slips down global cuisine rankings

    Fury at British best restaurants survey sees French magazine produce a rival list
    Star choreographer Matthew Bourne gives young carers a chance to perform at Sadler's Wells

    Young carers to make dance debut

    What happened when superstar choreographer Matthew Bourne encouraged 27 teenage carers to think about themselves for once?
    Design Council's 70th anniversary: Four of the most intriguing prototypes from Ones to Watch

    Design Council's 70th anniversary

    Four of the most intriguing prototypes from Ones to Watch
    Dame Harriet Walter: The actress on learning what it is to age, plastic surgery, and her unease at being honoured by the establishment

    Dame Harriet Walter interview

    The actress on learning what it is to age, plastic surgery, and her unease at being honoured by the establishment
    Art should not be a slave to the ideas driving it

    Art should not be a slave to the ideas driving it

    Critics of Tom Stoppard's new play seem to agree that cerebral can never trump character, says DJ Taylor
    Bill Granger recipes: Our chef's winter salads will make you feel energised through February

    Bill Granger's winter salads

    Salads aren't just a bit on the side, says our chef - their crunch, colour and natural goodness are perfect for a midwinter pick-me-up
    England vs Wales: Cool head George Ford ready to put out dragon fire

    George Ford: Cool head ready to put out dragon fire

    No 10’s calmness under pressure will be key for England in Cardiff
    Michael Calvin: Time for Old Firm to put aside bigotry and forge new links

    Michael Calvin's Last Word

    Time for Old Firm to put aside bigotry and forge new links