Bethan Marshall: A double whammy of stress and strain

The burden on these exams is bringing them to the point of near collapse

Share
Related Topics

Around 20 years ago, the then Conservative government changed the way A-levels were assessed, from a method known as norm referencing to one called criterion referencing. The difference mainly lies in the way in which they measure standards and ensure that those standards remain consistent over time. The endless bickering over whether standards are changing is as much about the yardstick as about what pupils achieve.

Essentially, test developers working with a norm referencing system trial, and then determine, what a normal cohort of entrants to a particular level of exam would be expected to get. From this they produce a distribution curve and allot each grade boundary a certain percentage of candidates for that grade - 5 per cent for an A, 15 per cent for a C, for example. All subsequent exams are trialled against these so-called norms. An exam that does not produce a similar curve will be discarded as either too easy or too hard, depending on the shape the curve produces - the percentage on either side of the middle.

The reason that this system appears competitive is that only a certain percentage will get the top grades. In this sense, all entrants are competing against the cohort with whom they are taking the exam. Ironically, this makes standards over time harder to judge because in any given year the cohort itself may vary from the predetermined norm.

The major difference with the US is that they separate out high school graduation qualifications from those of university entrance. Graduation, in America, is about what you have achieved against clearly defined criteria - the other way of ensuring standards. Criterion referencing is usually seen as a fairer way of assessing achievement than norm referencing, because it measures what a pupil can actually do.

Test developers in this system predetermine what kind of attributes a candidate achieving a particular grade would be likely to display. All subsequent exam performances are then judged against these standards. Criterion referencing also allows you to set clear benchmarks of what you would like any given group of pupils to achieve. This is why the Tories introduced it with the national curriculum. It enabled them to hold schools to account. And it is this feature that makes the system so dear to New Labour's accountancy culture heart.

But clearly defined criteria, or assessment objectives, as they are called in A-level syllabi, make it much easier to teach to the test. The consistent rise in A-level results over the last 20 years are partly symptomatic of the abandonment of norm referencing, but they are also indicative of the adeptness of teachers at getting their pupils through narrowly defined examination hoops.

This is quite different from the ubiquitous arguments about the dumbing down of the gold standard. The pupils who today wave exam slips with straight As have genuinely achieved what they were asked to do. They have worked hard and demonstrated all that is needed to gain the award. It is possible, however, that their experience may have been narrowed by the demands of the course and the constraints of working so specifically to the test.

So when we ask whether A-levels should once again become competitive or if standards have deviated from some mythical golden era, we are asking the wrong questions. What we ought to be asking is whether the current system serves the greater end of a good education for the nation's adolescents. And the answer to that has to be no.

Because we persist in conflating a graduation qualification with the entry requirement to university, British pupils are hit with a double whammy of stress and strain. When you add the pressure on schools for league table positions, the burden on these exams is bringing them to the point of near collapse.

In this, Labour is as culpable as the Tories. Fear of the annual outbursts of a few pundits and the bleatings of admissions officers means that education suffers. The Tomlinson report was sacrificed on the altar of electioneering; with it went the last gasp of intelligent analysis of, and solutions for, the A-level problem. So next year, and the one after, and on and on, pupils will cram in the heat of summer and fret in August, and commentators will cast doubt on their results.

The writer is a lecturer in education at King's College London

React Now

Latest stories from i100
Have you tried new the Independent Digital Edition apps?
iJobs Job Widget
iJobs General

Ashdown Group: Marketing & Sales Manager

£40000 per annum: Ashdown Group: A reputable organisation within the leisure i...

Tradewind Recruitment: Science Teacher

£90 - £140 per day: Tradewind Recruitment: I am currently working in partnersh...

Recruitment Genius: Doctors - Dubai - High "Tax Free" Earnings

£96000 - £200000 per annum: Recruitment Genius: Looking for a better earning p...

Recruitment Genius: PHP Developer

£32000 - £36000 per annum: Recruitment Genius: A rapidly expanding company in ...

Day In a Page

Read Next
British Prime Minister Tony Blair (L) pictured shaking hands with Libyan leader Colonel Moamer Kadhafi on 25 March 2004.  

There's nothing wrong with Labour’s modernisers except how outdated they look

Mark Steel
 

Any chance the other parties will run their election campaigns without any deceit or nastiness?

Nigel Farage
Isis hostage crisis: The prisoner swap has only one purpose for the militants - recognition its Islamic State exists and that foreign nations acknowledge its power

Isis hostage crisis

The prisoner swap has only one purpose for the militants - recognition its Islamic State exists and that foreign nations acknowledge its power, says Robert Fisk
Missing salvage expert who found $50m of sunken treasure before disappearing, tracked down at last

The runaway buccaneers and the ship full of gold

Salvage expert Tommy Thompson found sunken treasure worth millions. Then he vanished... until now
Homeless Veterans appeal: ‘If you’re hard on the world you are hard on yourself’

Homeless Veterans appeal: ‘If you’re hard on the world you are hard on yourself’

Maverick artist Grayson Perry backs our campaign
Assisted Dying Bill: I want to be able to decide about my own death - I want to have control of my life

Assisted Dying Bill: 'I want control of my life'

This week the Assisted Dying Bill is debated in the Lords. Virginia Ironside, who has already made plans for her own self-deliverance, argues that it's time we allowed people a humane, compassionate death
Move over, kale - cabbage is the new rising star

Cabbage is king again

Sophie Morris banishes thoughts of soggy school dinners and turns over a new leaf
11 best winter skin treats

Give your moisturiser a helping hand: 11 best winter skin treats

Get an extra boost of nourishment from one of these hard-working products
Paul Scholes column: The more Jose Mourinho attempts to influence match officials, the more they are likely to ignore him

Paul Scholes column

The more Jose Mourinho attempts to influence match officials, the more they are likely to ignore him
Frank Warren column: No cigar, but pots of money: here come the Cubans

Frank Warren's Ringside

No cigar, but pots of money: here come the Cubans
Isis hostage crisis: Militant group stands strong as its numerous enemies fail to find a common plan to defeat it

Isis stands strong as its numerous enemies fail to find a common plan to defeat it

The jihadis are being squeezed militarily and economically, but there is no sign of an implosion, says Patrick Cockburn
Virtual reality thrusts viewers into the frontline of global events - and puts film-goers at the heart of the action

Virtual reality: Seeing is believing

Virtual reality thrusts viewers into the frontline of global events - and puts film-goers at the heart of the action
Homeless Veterans appeal: MP says Coalition ‘not doing enough’

Homeless Veterans appeal

MP says Coalition ‘not doing enough’ to help
Larry David, Steve Coogan and other comedians share stories of depression in new documentary

Comedians share stories of depression

The director of the new documentary, Kevin Pollak, tells Jessica Barrett how he got them to talk
Has The Archers lost the plot with it's spicy storylines?

Has The Archers lost the plot?

A growing number of listeners are voicing their discontent over the rural soap's spicy storylines; so loudly that even the BBC's director-general seems worried, says Simon Kelner
English Heritage adds 14 post-war office buildings to its protected lists

14 office buildings added to protected lists

Christopher Beanland explores the underrated appeal of these palaces of pen-pushing
Human skull discovery in Israel proves humans lived side-by-side with Neanderthals

Human skull discovery in Israel proves humans lived side-by-side with Neanderthals

Scientists unearthed the cranial fragments from Manot Cave in West Galilee