Tom Hodgkinson: 'Throw away that guilt-inducing clock'


Related Topics

The 18th century is generally seen as as a hard-working epoch, particularly the latter part of it, when the Industrial Revolution was born. This was the time when Victorian prosperity was forged in the smithy of the new work ethic. It was a time when the Protestant attitude finally triumphed over Popery and we were encouraged to abandon the contemplative life in favour of sweat, toil, consumption and social advancement. This was progress. You might say it was a triumph of Whiggery.

And this remains the dominant ethic today. Politicians, by nature, favour industry over contemplation. They tend to be utilitarian philistines. Chancellor Osborne, of the sixth-form triumvirate, recently said that he was "on the side of those who work hard and want to get on".

Well, a new book, The Pursuit of Laziness by French academic Pierre Saint-Amand, points out that in fact the 18th century was less frenetic than often thought, and saw its fair share of loafing philosophers. I read the translation, and it's written in a style that some Brits may view as a tad prétentiueux, the French seeming to love abstraction, paradox and generally confusing the reader with overlong sentences ending in a reference to Roland Barthes.

That aside, there is plenty here of interest to students of idleness in the 18th century. (And I know that there are many of you out there. Idleness in the 18th century is just so hot right now.) Rousseau emerges as one of the great loafers of all time. It was society, says Rousseau, that wrecked the old golden age of sweet indolence: "The extent to which man is naturally lazy is inconceivable," argues Jean-Jacques. "One would say that he lives only in order to sleep, to vegetate, to remain immobile… to do nothing is man's first and strongest passion after that of self-preservation."

Rousseau goes on to argue that even hard work has laziness as its goal: "[I]t is in order to achieve repose that each works; it is still laziness that makes us industrious." And Saint-Amand finds other avatars of idleness. There is Xavier de Maistre's book A Journey Around My Room of 1795, which calls on the lazy to unite: "Buck up, then; we're on our way... let all the lazy people of the world rise en masse." There is also the essayist Marivaux, who wrote a piece called "In Praise of Laziness and of the Lazy" in 1740. And Diderot is praised for his love of his dressing-gown and desire to live like one of the Cynical philosophers of Ancient Athens, dressed in rags and embracing philosophical poverty.

Saint-Amand, though, does not mention the pro-idleness writings that were coming out of the UK at this point. Dr Johnson argued, like Rousseau, that men are naturally lazy. "As peace is the end of war, so to be idle is the ultimate purpose of the busy," he wrote in 1758. The hedge-fund guy works for his leisure, aiming at early retirement, lots of holidays and shooting weekends. The postman works in order to go to the pub. We all feel a powerful will to idleness.

The will to idleness, though, is continually challenged by a will to work. Although Dr Johnson was a self-confessed idler, he also resolved to improve what he called his "refractory habits". It was his custom on New Year's Eve to make resolutions to rise early. By nature a slugabed, he would often lie in bed till 12 or later, and thought that if he resolved to get up at eight, he might actually get up at 10, and that would be an improvement.

My New Year's resolution always used to be to get up early. I then resolved to stop resolving, because my resolve would always crumble, and I would sink soon into my bad old sluggardly ways, only this time I would be full of remorse for having broken my resolution. My girlfriend encouraged me to throw away that guilt-inducing agent of the work ethic, the alarm clock, and demonstrated that you could train yourself to wake up in good time without it. For that I am eternally grateful.

The 18th century had its fierce proponents of the work ethic, to be sure. Like most governments, 18th-century France cracked down on the workshy. Idlers are painted as antisocial. "Society owes to all of its members subsistence or work," read a report from the Committee on Begging from 1790. "Whoever is able to work and refuses to do so is guilty of a crime against society and thus loses all right to subsistence."

But the philosophical reaction against such pronouncements did not lack force. As Saint-Amand concludes, the observations of Rousseau and the rest "embrace a project of slowing down while proclaiming a new order of liberties", and this is precisely what my own worldly bustlings hope to achieve.

Tom Hodgkinson is editor of 'The Idler'

React Now

  • Get to the point
Latest stories from i100
Have you tried new the Independent Digital Edition apps?
iJobs Job Widget
iJobs General

Recruitment Genius: Customer Service Executive

£18000 - £22000 per annum: Recruitment Genius: This is an exciting opportunity...

Recruitment Genius: Retail Buyer / Ecommerce Buyer

£30000 - £35000 per annum: Recruitment Genius: Working closely with the market...

Recruitment Genius: Sales Executive - CAD Software Solutions Sales

£20000 - £50000 per annum: Recruitment Genius: A reputable company, famed for ...

Ashdown Group: Client Accountant Team Manager - Reading

Negotiable: Ashdown Group: The Ashdown Group has been engaged by a highly resp...

Day In a Page

Read Next
Brand loyalty: businessmen Stuart Rose (pictured with David Cameron at the Conservative conference in 2010) was among the signatories  

So, the people who always support the Tories... are supporting the Tories? Has the world gone mad?

Mark Steel
Crofter's cottages on Lewis. The island's low population density makes it a good candidate for a spaceport (Alamy)  

My Scottish awakening, helped by horizontal sleet

Simon Kelner
War with Isis: Iraq declares victory in the battle for Tikrit - but militants make make ominous advances in neighbouring Syria's capital

War with Isis

Iraq declares victory in the battle for Tikrit - but militants make make ominous advances in neighbouring Syria
Scientists develop mechanical spring-loaded leg brace to improve walking

A spring in your step?

Scientists develop mechanical leg brace to help take a load off
Peter Ackroyd on Alfred Hitchcock: How London shaped the director's art and obsessions

Peter Ackroyd on Alfred Hitchcock

Ackroyd has devoted his literary career to chronicling the capital and its characters. He tells John Walsh why he chose the master of suspense as his latest subject
Ryan Reynolds interview: The actor is branching out with Nazi art-theft drama Woman in Gold

Ryan Reynolds branches out in Woman in Gold

For every box-office smash in Ryan Reynolds' Hollywood career, there's always been a misconceived let-down. It's time for a rethink and a reboot, the actor tells James Mottram
Why Robin Williams safeguarded himself against a morbid trend in advertising

Stars safeguard against morbid advertising

As film-makers and advertisers make increasing posthumous use of celebrities' images, some stars are finding new ways of ensuring that they rest in peace
The UK horticulture industry is facing a skills crisis - but Great Dixter aims to change all that

UK horticulture industry facing skills crisis

Great Dixter manor house in East Sussex is encouraging people to work in the industry by offering three scholarships a year to students, as well as generous placements
10 best compact cameras

A look through the lens: 10 best compact cameras

If your smartphone won’t quite cut it, it’s time to invest in a new portable gadget
Tracey Neville: The netball coach who is just as busy as her brothers, Gary and Phil

Tracey Neville is just as busy as her brothers, Gary and Phil

The former player on how she is finding time to coach both Manchester Thunder in the Superleague and England in this year's World Cup
General Election 2015: The masterminds behind the scenes

The masterminds behind the election

How do you get your party leader to embrace a message and then stick to it? By employing these people
Machine Gun America: The amusement park where teenagers go to shoot a huge range of automatic weapons

Machine Gun America

The amusement park where teenagers go to shoot a huge range of automatic weapons
The ethics of pet food: Why are we are so selective in how we show animals our love?

The ethics of pet food

Why are we are so selective in how we show animals our love?
How Tansy Davies turned 9/11 into her opera 'Between Worlds'

How a composer turned 9/11 into her opera 'Between Worlds'

Tansy Davies makes her operatic debut with a work about the attack on the Twin Towers. Despite the topic, she says it is a life-affirming piece
11 best bedside tables

11 best bedside tables

It could be the first thing you see in the morning, so make it work for you. We find night stands, tables and cabinets to wake up to
Italy vs England player ratings: Did Andros Townsend's goal see him beat Harry Kane and Wayne Rooney to top marks?

Italy vs England player ratings

Did Townsend's goal see him beat Kane and Rooney to top marks?
Danny Higginbotham: An underdog's tale of making the most of it

An underdog's tale of making the most of it

Danny Higginbotham on being let go by Manchester United, annoying Gordon Strachan, utilising his talents to the full at Stoke and plunging into the world of analysis