Everything to lose with these chains

POLEMIC; Tim Lang ponders our growing dependence on supermarkets

Share
Related Topics
Shareholders may have cheered, but the rest of us should be cautious about the hefty profits - £595m - Tesco announced this week. The Tesco figures symbolise what is good (for some) and bad about the British economy - fast concentrating markets mean large companies have too much power, and consumers feeling the squeezehave less choice about where they shop.

Tesco's results put paidto those proponents of Thatcherite market orthodoxy who pronounced that competition from new low-cost, small-range chains such as Aldi and Netto, and US-style warehouse clubs, would be tough for the giants but just what the recession-bound consumer would want. That analysis lies in tatters. Warehouse clubs have failed to take off, and the low-cost chains have not dented the expansion of the biggest British stores.

Britain now has an oligopoly in whichSainsbury, Tesco, Argyll (Safeway), Asda and Gateway or KwikSave (depending on whose figures you accept) account for around 60 per cent of sales. Since 1950 the share of multiples has gone inexorably up, independent small grocers have decreased, and Co- ops show a slight decline.This may be good for the survivors, but it creates neither secure employment nor a sound food economy in which the needs of all are met. Britain now has a food underclass. There are shopping deserts with lots of consumers but precious little provision.

In British law, a monopoly is deemed to be 25 per cent of a market. No one, not even Tesco, which this week claimed to knock Sainsbury off the leadership, has 25 per cent. So what is the problem? There is a sleight of hand here. To Tesco's board, the market is a plastic notion. Having bought a large chain in France and another in Hungary in recent years, it increasingly looks to the European consumer. Sainsbury is quietly mopping up stores on the east coast of the US. Safeway has gone another route, setting up a pan-European purchasing alliance with other large chains. For them, the market is international. But what about the consumer ?

You or I tend to shop within five miles of our homes. That distance has actually risen rapidly in recent years. According to Ministry of Transport figures, the total distance travelled to shop rose by 66 per cent between 1975 and 1991. Henley Centre figures show that 73 per cent of households now use a car for their main grocery shopping. No wonder the time we spend on food shopping has risen in the past 30 years. In other words, we go to work to earn money to buy a car which we use to shop for daily needs. And we are encouraged to be thrilled at the "bargain" of 10p off a pint of milk! This is absurd. And, as last month's redundancies at Northern Foods showed, it also puts people out of work.

For all their trumpeting of slashing prices, supermarkets are very good at raising them, too. The Consumers' Association's routine monitor of prices found a small overall rise in its basket of goods from 1993 to 1994 at a time when there was supposed to be a price squeeze.

One reason for higher prices is the growing proportion of pre-processed foods sold in supermarkets at a premium - we now eat a diet of more than 80 per cent pre-processed foods.

Markets should be defined locally; if bus companies are judged for local competition, why not supermarkets? Last year Tesco bought Scotland's largest chain, Wm Low, surely taking it over the 25 per cent threshold. At a borough or travel-to-shop level, most observers suspect that monopolies already exist. With the Commons Trade and Industry Select Committee about to press for an overhaul of the Office of Fair Trading and the Monopolies and Mergers Commission, where better for them to start than supermarkets?

The writer is professor of food policy at Thames Valley University and co-author, with Hugh Raven, of `Off our Trolley? Food retailing and the hypermarket economy', IPPR, 1995, £5.45.

React Now

Latest stories from i100
Have you tried new the Independent Digital Edition apps?
iJobs Job Widget
iJobs General

Guru Careers: Software Developer / C# Developer

£40-50K: Guru Careers: We are seeking an experienced Software / C# Developer w...

Guru Careers: Software Developer

£35 - 40k + Benefits: Guru Careers: We are seeking a Software Developer (JavaS...

SThree: Trainee Recruitment Consultant / Resourcer

£18000 - £23000 per annum + Commission: SThree: As a Trainee Recruitment Consu...

Ashdown Group: UI Developer - (UI, HTML, CSS, JavaScript, AngularJS)

£25000 - £40000 per annum: Ashdown Group: UI Developer - (UI, JavaScript, HTML...

Day In a Page

Read Next
Yvette Cooper campaigning in London at the launch of Labour’s women’s manifesto  

I want the Labour Party to lead a revolution in family support

Yvette Cooper
Liz Kendall  

Labour leadership contest: 'Moderniser' is just a vague and overused label

Steve Richards
Abuse - and the hell that came afterwards

Abuse - and the hell that follows

James Rhodes on the extraordinary legal battle to publish his memoir
Why we need a 'tranquility map' of England, according to campaigners

It's oh so quiet!

The case for a 'tranquility map' of England
'Timeless fashion': It may be a paradox, but the industry loves it

'Timeless fashion'

It may be a paradox, but the industry loves it
If the West needs a bridge to the 'moderates' inside Isis, maybe we could have done with Osama bin Laden staying alive after all

Could have done with Osama bin Laden staying alive?

Robert Fisk on the Fountainheads of World Evil in 2011 - and 2015
New exhibition celebrates the evolution of swimwear

Evolution of swimwear

From bathing dresses in the twenties to modern bikinis
Sun, sex and an anthropological study: One British academic's summer of hell in Magaluf

Sun, sex and an anthropological study

One academic’s summer of hell in Magaluf
From Shakespeare to Rising Damp... to Vicious

Frances de la Tour's 50-year triumph

'Rising Damp' brought De la Tour such recognition that she could be forgiven if she'd never been able to move on. But at 70, she continues to flourish - and to beguile
'That Whitsun, I was late getting away...'

Ian McMillan on the Whitsun Weddings

This weekend is Whitsun, and while the festival may no longer resonate, Larkin's best-loved poem, lives on - along with the train journey at the heart of it
Kathryn Williams explores the works and influences of Sylvia Plath in a new light

Songs from the bell jar

Kathryn Williams explores the works and influences of Sylvia Plath
How one man's day in high heels showed him that Cannes must change its 'no flats' policy

One man's day in high heels

...showed him that Cannes must change its 'flats' policy
Is a quiet crusade to reform executive pay bearing fruit?

Is a quiet crusade to reform executive pay bearing fruit?

Dominic Rossi of Fidelity says his pressure on business to control rewards is working. But why aren’t other fund managers helping?
The King David Hotel gives precious work to Palestinians - unless peace talks are on

King David Hotel: Palestinians not included

The King David is special to Jerusalem. Nick Kochan checked in and discovered it has some special arrangements, too
More people moving from Australia to New Zealand than in the other direction for first time in 24 years

End of the Aussie brain drain

More people moving from Australia to New Zealand than in the other direction for first time in 24 years
Meditation is touted as a cure for mental instability but can it actually be bad for you?

Can meditation be bad for you?

Researching a mass murder, Dr Miguel Farias discovered that, far from bringing inner peace, meditation can leave devotees in pieces
Eurovision 2015: Australians will be cheering on their first-ever entrant this Saturday

Australia's first-ever Eurovision entrant

Australia, a nation of kitsch-worshippers, has always loved the Eurovision Song Contest. Maggie Alderson says it'll fit in fine