We do not need any more research. Action to help them is urgent. Such action needs to concern itself for the long-term with remedying deficiencies in schooling or training. But it must also find ways of working effectively now with those who have dropped out. In this context, modest investment in Britain's youth service with its mosaic of projects, including the Prince's Trust, and street-based youth workers would do much to lift levels of basic skills, promote social inclusion, and restore hope to the young underclass.