Hamilton crossed the line a crushing 18 seconds clear of Valtteri Bottas in the sister Mercedes following an emphatic performance at the Circuit Paul Ricard.
On a perfect afternoon, the five-time world champion extended his lead over Bottas, his closest title challenger, to 36 points.
Ferrari's Charles Leclerc ran Bottas close in the final stages, but stayed in third ahead of the Red Bull driver Max Verstappen.
"I have been racing a long time but it never gets old," said Hamilton.
"I couldn't do it without the team. We are creating history together and I am so proud to be a part of it. I am happy.
"It wasn't easy at all. There are always things happening and we are on the edge. This has been the best start to a year so we have got to enjoy it."
Following his heavy defeat, Bottas said: "It is something I need to have a look at. He [Hamilton] is not unbeatable, I know that, I just need to work hard."
Sebastian Vettel took the chequered flag a distant fifth, a full minute down on Hamilton. Vettel may have claimed a bonus point for the fastest lap, but he is a morale-sapping 76 points adrift of Hamilton in the championship race.
Hamilton has now triumphed six times from the opening eight rounds, dropping just 21 points along the way.
A sixth world title, which would move him to within one of Michael Schumacher's record, is becoming an inevitability.
The combination of Hamilton and his Mercedes machine is proving unstoppable. Here, he was unchallenged from pole position, leading every lap en route to recording his 79th career win.
The Briton requires 13 further victories to topple Schumacher's win record. There are 13 races left this year.
Ferrari have been no match for Mercedes this season, and have endured arguably their worst weekend of the season in France.
They failed in their appeal to overturn Vettel's penalty which lost him the Canadian Grand Prix a fortnight ago. Vettel could qualify only seventh, before making up just two places.
At one point, the four-time champion was told to go to "Plan F". Plan A is a distant memory for the Scuderia.
In a race of rare action, British teenager Lando Norris was unable to build on his career-best qualifying of fifth.
The 19-year-old novice lost out to McLaren team-mate Carlos Sainz on the race down to the opening bend, before Vettel's Ferrari cruised past him on lap five.
Then, he was forced to nurse a suspected hydraulics issue to the line.
Norris looked as though he would hang on to seventh but cruelly lost three places on the final lap, to Daniel Ricciardo, Kimi Raikkonen and Nico Hulkenberg, coming home in a disappointing 10th. However, stewards penalised Ricciardo twice after the race, one for his overtake on Norris forcing the McLaren off the road and the other for going off the track and gaining an advantage in passing Raikkonen, and both were punished with separate five-second penalties that dropped the Renault driver to 11th place and out of the points.
Norris' fellow British rookie George Russell finished last as he was beaten by Williams team-mate Robert Kubica for the first time this season.
Final Positions after Race (53 Laps):
1 Lewis Hamilton (Gbr) Mercedes GP 1hr 24mins 31.198secs
2 Valtteri Bottas (Fin) Mercedes GP 1:24:49.254
3 Charles Leclerc (Mon) Ferrari 1:24:50.183
4 Max Verstappen (Ned) Red Bull 1:25:06.103
5 Sebastian Vettel (Ger) Ferrari 1:25:33.994
6 Carlos Sainz (Spa) McLaren 1:26:06.660
7 Kimi Raikkonen (Fin) Alfa Romeo Racing at 1 lap
8 Nico Hulkenberg (Ger) Renault at 1 lap
9 Lando Norris (Gbr) McLaren at 1 lap
10 Pierre Gasly (Fra) Red Bull at 1 lap
11 Daniel Ricciardo (Aus) Renault at 1 lap + 10-second penalty
12 Sergio Perez (Mex) Racing Point at 1 lap
13 Lance Stroll (Can) Racing Point at 1 lap
14 Daniil Kvyat (Rus) Scuderia Toro Rosso at 1 lap
15 Alexander Albon (Tha) Scuderia Toro Rosso at 1 lap
16 Antonio Giovinazzi (Ita) Alfa Romeo Racing at 1 lap
17 Kevin Magnussen (Den) Haas F1 at 1 lap
18 Robert Kubica (Pol) Williams at 2 laps
19 George Russell (Gbr) Williams at 2 laps
20 Romain Grosjean (Fra) Haas F1 44 laps completed
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