THE 1990s IN REVIEW: ARCHITECTURE - I've seen the Future Systems

Post-Modernist columns are out; hi-tech and computer-aided design is in. By Marcus Field

A decade is a short time in architecture. This makes it all the more impressive that a discipline that started the 1990s with a load of rip-off columns and cornices as its vocabulary has ended in spectacular style with a building made using fighter-plane technology.

Ten years ago architectural debate in Britain was trapped in a deadly dull divide between those who promoted buildings inspired by Classicism (remember Prince Charles, yawn, yawn) and those who believed that buildings should be uncompromisingly modern.

The effects of the Prince's publicly voiced views were widespread and catastrophic for architects, who found themselves blamed for every ill in towns and cities and coerced by planners to jolly things up by popping columns and clock towers on everything from supermarkets to car parks.

As a result, vast swaths of Britain have been covered with kitsch houses, offices and shopping centres which take the Classical style as their starting point. Much of what has been built in this backlash against Modernism is ill conceived and badly made. But not all of it. The final solution for the hotly contested extension to the National Gallery, completed in 1991, is the Sainsbury Wing by the American architects Robert "less is a bore" Venturi and Denise Scott Brown. This is an example of a trend that has become known as "architainment", a leisure building which unashamedly flaunts popular motifs.

Closely related to architainment are buildings produced in the Post-Modern style. In London the most conspicuous examples are both by Terry Farrell. The first is Embankment Place, that bloated bauble above Charing Cross station that looks like a giant Art Deco wireless. The second is Vauxhall Cross, the sandy-coloured HQ of MI6 on the Thames. Both Farrell's buildings are now London landmarks, but their scale, bravura and indirect associations with Thatcherite economics has put the architect out of favour. Perhaps it is indicative of changing tastes that the MI6 building is summarily destroyed in the latest James Bond movie.

In direct contrast to Post-Modernism is the undoubted winner of the decade's style wars. This is the strictly Modernist and rational work of Norman Foster, Richard Rogers and their peers. Both Lord Foster and Lord Rogers started the 1990s with few built works in Britain and ended it with peerages and numerous large schemes. Foster, whose recently completed Hong Kong international airport is reported to be the largest enclosed structure in the world, is already working on the Great Court at the British Museum, a new footbridge across the Thames, a skyscraper in the City and the home for the new London Assembly. Rogers meanwhile has the dubious job of being architect for the Millennium Dome, Heathrow Terminal 5 and the new National Assembly for Wales. Others of their hi-tech school include Nicholas Grimshaw, whose Waterloo International Terminal opened in 1992, and Sir Michael Hopkins, who turned from steel-and-glass to brick- and-stick in his beautifully crafted buildings for Glyndebourne Opera House and the Inland Revenue in Nottingham.

Big buildings have also been prominent. Jumbo projects at home, include Foster's Stansted airport completed in 1991, while abroad scale became an issue as projects vied for labels such as tallest or most expensive. The shiny white Getty Center in Los Angeles by Richard Meier and the Tokyo Forum in Japan by Rafael Vinoly both boasted unprecedented budgets of over $1bn. In Kuala Lumpur, Cesar Pelli's glittering silver Petronas Towers eclipsed all former contenders to become the tallest building in the world.

But size isn't everything. There are many small buildings which may later be seen as the most significant of their time. The abstract beauty of modestly scaled buildings in Switzerland by Jacques Herzog and Pierre de Meuron won them the approval of Tate Gallery director Nicholas Serota and the commission to turn the defunct Bankside Power Station into the Tate Modern.

Among other architects who built modest projects but who are likely to feature strongly in the next decade is Zaha Hadid, whose 1993 fire station in Weil am Rhein, Germany, is a dynamic arrangement of angled concrete planes and a rare example of Deconstructivism. Her competition-winning entry for a new opera house in Cardiff is one of the great unbuilt projects of the decade.

Back in London, Future Systems recently won the 1999 Stirling Prize for its extraordinary Media Centre at Lord's Cricket Ground. The finely finished aluminium pod, prefabricated in a boat yard in Cornwall, realises the dream of Modernist pioneers to make buildings like industrial objects.

For the architect achieving greatest cult status, the Dutchman Rem Koolhaas wins hands-down. His giant architectural novel S,M,L,XL became a hip accessory, while his Bordeaux villa of 1998 is one of the most talked- about buildings of the decade. Its abstract composition in rough concrete, stone and high-performance glass, recalls the later work of Le Corbusier, but brought up-to-date with new technology and a surreal, labyrinthine plan.

Now for the finale. Among the most extraordinary spectacles are two buildings completed late in the decade. The first is the Jewish Museum in Berlin by Daniel Libeskind. Here technology is not as important as what the building represents. It is both a memorial and a museum, a record and a place of contemplation. It is also a fine example of how architecture can be a powerful work of art as well as a container, a fact often overlooked in our consumer-crazy culture.

The second unmissable is the Guggenheim Museum in Bilbao. The asymmetric titanium-clad building by the American Frank Gehry put Bilbao back on the map and revived the local economy as tourists flooded in. In terms of technology it lives up to its looks. The building was designed using CATIA software, the French programme used to develop fighter planes. The chaotic form illustrates how computer-controlled mass production technology is capable of turning out customised components so that every part of a building can be different. This opens up endless possibilities for architects to make wilfully shaped new buildings at affordable prices. The next decade is going to be fun and the Architecture Foundation has already coined the perfect term for it: "the noughties".



Robert Venturi and Denise Scott Brown's neoclassical design.


Richard Meier's billion-dollar building for art.

1997 PETRONAS TOWERS, KUALA LUMPUR Cesar Pelli's record-breaking towers.


Frank Gehry's shiny abstract.


The complexity of a city in a single house. By Rem Koolhaas/ OMA


Foster's apotheosis.


Hybrid memorial/ museum by Daniel Libeskind.


The machine aesthetic, by Future Systems.


Richard Rogers's

iconic form.


Herzog & de Meuron's

timely interventions in a former power station. MF

Arts and Entertainment
Eddie Redmayne with his Screen Actors Guild award for Best Actor

Arts and Entertainment
Rowan Atkinson is bringing out Mr Bean for Comic Relief

Arts and Entertainment


Arts and Entertainment
V&A museum in London

Art Piece taken off website amid 'severe security alert'

Arts and Entertainment
Over their 20 years, the band has built a community of dedicated followers the world over
Have you tried new the Independent Digital Edition apps?
Arts and Entertainment

ebooksNow available in paperback
Arts and Entertainment

Arts and Entertainment
Reese Witherspoon starring in 'Wild'

It's hard not to warm to Reese Witherspoon's heroismfilm
Arts and Entertainment
Word up: Robbie Coltrane as dictionary guru Doctor Johnson in the classic sitcom Blackadder the Third

Arts and Entertainment
The Oscar nominations are due to be announced today

Oscars 2015
Arts and Entertainment
Hacked off: Maisie Williams in ‘Cyberbully’

Maisie Williams single-handedly rises to the challenge

Arts and Entertainment
Eddie Redmayne in The Theory of Everything and Benedict Cumberbatch in The Imitation Game are both nominated at the Bafta Film Awards
Arts and Entertainment

Academy criticised after no non-white actors nominated

Arts and Entertainment
Damian Lewis shooting a scene as Henry VIII in Wolf Hall

Arts and Entertainment
A history of violence: ‘Angry, White and Proud’ looked at the rise of far-right groups


An expose of hooliganism masquerading as an ideological battle

Arts and Entertainment


Lee Hadwin can't draw when he's awake, but by night he's an artist

Arts and Entertainment


Arts and Entertainment
Michael Keaton in the 1998 Beetlejuice original


Arts and Entertainment


Arts and Entertainment
Olivia Colman and David Tennant star in 'Broadchurch'


Arts and Entertainment
Michael Kitchen plays Christopher Foyle in ITV's 'Foyle's War'

Arts and Entertainment

Arts and Entertainment
Downton Abbey star Joanne Froggatt will be starring in Dominic Savage's new BBC drama The Secrets

Arts and Entertainment
Vividly drawn: Timothy Spall in Mike Leigh’s ‘Mr Turner’
Latest stories from i100
Have you tried new the Independent Digital Edition apps?

ES Rentals

    Independent Dating

    By clicking 'Search' you
    are agreeing to our
    Terms of Use.

    Syria crisis: Celebrities call on David Cameron to take more refugees as one young mother tells of torture by Assad regime

    Celebrities call on David Cameron to take more Syrian refugees

    One young mother tells of torture by Assad regime
    The enemy within: People who hear voices in their heads are being encouraged to talk back – with promising results

    The enemy within

    People who hear voices in their heads are being encouraged to talk back
    'In Auschwitz you got used to anything'

    'In Auschwitz you got used to anything'

    Survivors of the Nazi concentration camp remember its horror, 70 years on
    Autumn/winter menswear 2015: The uniforms that make up modern life come to the fore

    Autumn/winter menswear 2015

    The uniforms that make up modern life come to the fore
    'I'm gay, and plan to fight military homophobia'

    'I'm gay, and plan to fight military homophobia'

    Army general planning to come out
    Iraq invasion 2003: The bloody warnings six wise men gave to Tony Blair as he prepared to launch poorly planned campaign

    What the six wise men told Tony Blair

    Months before the invasion of Iraq in 2003, experts sought to warn the PM about his plans. Here, four of them recall that day
    25 years of The Independent on Sunday: The stories, the writers and the changes over the last quarter of a century

    25 years of The Independent on Sunday

    The stories, the writers and the changes over the last quarter of a century
    Homeless Veterans appeal: 'Really caring is a dangerous emotion in this kind of work'

    Homeless Veterans appeal

    As head of The Soldiers' Charity, Martin Rutledge has to temper compassion with realism. He tells Chris Green how his Army career prepared him
    Wu-Tang Clan and The Sexual Objects offer fans a chance to own the only copies of their latest albums

    Smash hit go under the hammer

    It's nice to pick up a new record once in a while, but the purchasers of two latest releases can go a step further - by buying the only copy
    Geeks who rocked the world: Documentary looks back at origins of the computer-games industry

    The geeks who rocked the world

    A new documentary looks back at origins of the computer-games industry
    Belle & Sebastian interview: Stuart Murdoch reveals how the band is taking a new direction

    Belle & Sebastian is taking a new direction

    Twenty years ago, Belle & Sebastian was a fey indie band from Glasgow. It still is – except today, as prime mover Stuart Murdoch admits, it has a global cult following, from Hollywood to South Korea
    America: Land of the free, home of the political dynasty

    America: Land of the free, home of the political dynasty

    These days in the US things are pretty much stuck where they are, both in politics and society at large, says Rupert Cornwell
    A graphic history of US civil rights – in comic book form

    A graphic history of US civil rights – in comic book form

    A veteran of the Fifties campaigns is inspiring a new generation of activists
    Winston Churchill: the enigma of a British hero

    Winston Churchill: the enigma of a British hero

    A C Benson called him 'a horrid little fellow', George Orwell would have shot him, but what a giant he seems now, says DJ Taylor
    Growing mussels: Precious freshwater shellfish are thriving in a unique green project

    Growing mussels

    Precious freshwater shellfish are thriving in a unique green project