Catch-22: How the cult classic was adapted for the stage

More than half a century after it was published 'Catch-22' will make its British stage debut next week. American director Rachel Chavkin tells Matt Trueman about the challenges of staging it

Catch-22 has long since left its story behind. The syllogism that lent its name to Joseph Heller's dazzling debut novel about an US air-force squadron in the Second World War now nestles in the Oxford English Dictionary, below catchphrase, above catchup. Catch-22: "A difficult situation from where there is no escape because it involves mutually conflicting or despondent conditions." Put another way: you're damned if you do and damned if you don't.

So how's this for a Catch-22? In 1971, Heller adapted his book for the stage. The resulting adaptation is deeply flawed, condensing 500 pages and 50 named characters into two hours of stage time for a cast of nine. However, because the author's adaptation exists, it's almost impossible to get the rights to adapt it yourself. So, if you want to stage Catch-22, which you should, you have to use Heller's version, which you shouldn't. As I said: damned if you do, damned if you don't.

That explains why a novel so acclaimed and adored – it was once voted the seventh best in the English language –took 46 years to make it to the stage. That 2007 Broadway production – directed by a Brit, Peter Meineck – faltered. Now, it's about to get its UK premiere – directed by an American, Rachel Chavkin – and, as the old graffiti classic goes: Yossarian Lives.

If anyone can attack Heller's adaptation, it's Chavkin. Her experimental theatre company, the TEAM, is one of the most daringly intellectual in the world. Last year, they brought their anti-capitalist Las Vegas-set musical Mission Drift, with its talking lizards, nuclear beauty queens and 400-year-old Dutch pioneers, to the National Theatre, following a run at the Edinburgh Fringe. "I like unwieldy things," Chavkin laughs. "Much more than manageable things. It's just harder that way. Like, you actually have to wrestle with it."

Heller of a time: Michael Hodgson as Colonel Cathcart Heller of a time: Michael Hodgson as Colonel Cathcart Like the book, Heller's play centres on Captain John Yossarian, a bombardier so intent on survival that he pleads insanity in order to get out of flying any more missions. However, as the US Army sees it, Yossarian's not wanting to fly any more missions only proves his sanity. As Heller skewers the loopy logic, "If he flew them he was crazy and didn't have to; but if he didn't want to he was sane and had to." And that, my friends, is Catch-22.

"The thing you hear again and again in this adaptation is, Are you crazy? Are you crazy?" says Chavkin, 33, in her crisp DC accent. The day's rehearsals are over and we're sat in an empty church hall, all peeling paint and parish notices. "It's very easy to say that the world is crazy and Yossarian sane, but if you question people's willingness to die for the country, then the whole house of cards comes crashing down. How does society function if everyone is pathologically focused on self-preservation? That's the conundrum at the heart of the book."

Chavkin first read Catch-22 at 13. "It was this very treasured book in my family. My mum and my dad [both civil rights lawyers] just absolutely loved it and quoted it to each other frequently." As soon as she heard Northern Stage were thinking of staging it, she volunteered to adapt it – only learning of Heller's tricky adaptation later.

Heller's script has, she believes, been unfairly neglected. She thinks it ahead of its time. "You have to look past the stage directions, because when Heller first did the adaptation, they didn't necessarily have the theatrical language to deal with it – at least not in the mainstream." Nowadays, we can handle non-linear stories and actors switching characters in a flash.

Boiled down into dialogue, a lot of Heller's writing becomes rat-a-tat comedy, not unlike the patter of double-acts. Think of Milo Minderbinder, the mess officer behind the profiteering Syndicate, explaining the convoluted scam that allows him to buy eggs at seven cents apiece and sell them for five at a profit. "It can look slapsticky," Chavkin admits. "When I first read it, I saw the slapstick, but I was missing the existential despair that often comes through the narration."

What the play needs is a strong sense of the world around the action; the culture, as Chavkin calls it. To that end, her rehearsal room walls are covered in photographs of young American soldiers at work and, more often, at play. Men wear leather jackets and aviators. There are basketball games and drag acts; film screenings and flirtations. "There's the sense that the world is having so much fun – if only boys would stop dying. I really wanted to capture that sense of the band playing as the Titanic sinks."

She's built in song-and-dance around Heller's text. Sound designer Scott Twynholm is armed with a library of swing – "the popular music of the time" – but he's using Benny Goodman, a clarinettist leading a quartet, rather than Glenn Miller and his big band orchestra. All day, in the rehearsal room, "Moonlight Serenade" plays on a mournful loop. "The main device is a record player," explains Twynholm, "to mark these conversations that go round and round and round." Elsewhere in the room, Abbi Greenland and Helen Goalen of RashDash are choreographing a demented Charleston that sticks and glitches en route.

Chavkin, meanwhile, is working with her actors. Theirs is a tricky balancing act: "It's vital that the characterisations be as exaggerated as humans naturally are, without transforming into cartoons in any way." They must make these iconic characters into credible humans; not easy given the lunacy of their behaviour.

Alan Arkin as Yossarian in the 1970 film adaptation Alan Arkin as Yossarian in the 1970 film adaptation None are more iconic than Yossarian himself. He is, as Chavkin says, "every person who smells the shit, points at it and loses their mind wondering why no one else sees what's staring them in the face". Actor Philip Arditti, who plays him, has turned to Heller himself. The writer flew 60 missions as a B-25 bombardier on the Italian front. "Yossarian's experience isn't his experience word-for-word, but it's close enough. He calls himself Yossarian later in life and I think he idolises himself a bit in the character. I think he's really proud of himself for having survived when everybody dies." Arditti started out thinking Yossarian was "a lovely guy", but has become increasingly aware of the bitterness he shares with Heller. "He's angry at the world. There's no reason why he should be in this awful, deadly situation."

That's what Chavkin calls Yossarian's "rage at the senselessness of things, the illogic of cruelty" and it cuts to the heart of staging Catch-22. Onstage, Heller's story starts to look familiar. "It's a classic work of absurdism," she says, rooted in the same anger and humour you find in Beckett, Pinter and Ionesco – both Heller's contemporaries. "There's that surface comedy, but then there's this whole other layer of existential loneliness. That, for me, is absurdism and, in a truly absurd world, the edge is always there between things being brutally funny and just being brutal."

'Catch-22', Northern Stage, Newcastle upon Tyne (0191 230 5151) Saturday to 10 May; then touring to 28 June

Arts and Entertainment

Arts and Entertainment
Creep show: Tim Cockerill in ‘Spider House’

TVEnough to make ardent arachnophobes think twice

Arts and Entertainment
Steven, Ella Jade and Sarah in the boardroom
tvThe Apprentice contestants take a battering from the business mogul
Arts and Entertainment
TV Presenters Ant McPartlin and Dec Donnelly. Winners of the 'Entertainment Programme' award for 'Ant and Dec's Saturday Night Takeaway'
musicAnt and Dec confirmed as hosts of next year's Brit Awards
Arts and Entertainment
Jewel in the crown: drawings from ‘The Letter for the King’, an adventure about a boy and his mission to save a medieval realm
Arts and Entertainment
Juergen Wolf won the Young Masters Art Prize 2014 with his mixed media painting on wood, 'Untitled'
Arts and Entertainment
Iron Man and Captain America in a scene from
filmThe upcoming 'Black Panther' film will feature a solo black male lead, while a female superhero will take centre stage in 'Captain Marvel'
Have you tried new the Independent Digital Edition apps?
Arts and Entertainment
The Imperial War Museum, pictured, has campaigned to display copyrighted works during the First World War centenary
Arts and Entertainment
American Horror Story veteran Sarah Paulson plays conjoined twins Dot and Bette Tattler
tvReview: Yes, it’s depraved for the most part but strangely enough it has heart to it
Arts and Entertainment
The mind behind Game of Thrones George R. R. Martin

Will explain back story to fictional kingdom Westeros

Arts and Entertainment
Dorothy in Return to Oz

film Unintentionally terrifying children's movies to get you howling (in fear, tears or laughter)
Arts and Entertainment

Arts and Entertainment

Arts and Entertainment
Robert James-Collier as under-butler Thomas

TVLady Edith and Thomas show sad signs of the time
Arts and Entertainment

Arts and Entertainment
The Dad's Army cast hit the big screen

Arts and Entertainment

Arts and Entertainment
JK Rowling is releasing a new Harry Potter story about Dolores Umbridge

Arts and Entertainment
On The Apprentice, “serious” left the room many moons ago and yet still we watch

Arts and Entertainment
The Doctor finds himself in a forest version of London in Doctor Who episode 'In the Forest of the Night'
TVReview: Is the Doctor ever going stop frowning?
Arts and Entertainment
A scene from David Ayer's 'Fury'

Arts and Entertainment
Taylor Swift performs at the 2014 iHeart Radio Music Festival
music review
Arts and Entertainment
Paul Anderson plays Arthur Shelby in Peaky Blinders series two
tvReview: Arthur Shelby Jr seems to be losing his mind as his younger brother lets him run riot in London
Arts and Entertainment
Miranda Hart has called time on her award-winning BBC sitcom, Miranda
Arts and Entertainment
Sir Nicholas Serota has been a feature in the Power 100 top ten since its 2002 launch
Arts and Entertainment
Awesome foursome: Sam Smith shows off his awards
music22-year-old confirms he is 2014’s breakout British music success
Latest stories from i100
Have you tried new the Independent Digital Edition apps?

ES Rentals

    Independent Dating

    By clicking 'Search' you
    are agreeing to our
    Terms of Use.

    Isis in Syria: A general reveals the lack of communication with the US - and his country's awkward relationship with their allies-by-default

    A Syrian general speaks

    A senior officer of Bashar al-Assad’s regime talks to Robert Fisk about his army’s brutal struggle with Isis, in a dirty war whose challenges include widespread atrocities
    ‘A bit of a shock...’ Cambridge economist with Glasgow roots becomes Zambia’s acting President

    ‘A bit of a shock...’ Economist with Glasgow roots becomes Zambia’s acting President

    Guy Scott's predecessor, Michael Sata, died in a London hospital this week after a lengthy illness
    Fall of the Berlin Wall: History catches up with Erich Honecker - the East German leader who praised the Iron Curtain and claimed it prevented a Third World War

    Fall of the Berlin Wall

    History catches up with Erich Honecker - the East German leader who praised the Iron Curtain and claimed it prevented a Third World War
    How to turn your mobile phone into easy money

    Turn your mobile phone into easy money

    There are 90 million unused mobiles in the UK, which would be worth £7bn if we cashed them in, says David Crookes
    Independent writers remember their Saturday jobs:

    Independent writers remember their Saturday jobs

    "I have never regarded anything I have done in "the media" as a proper job"
    Lyricist Richard Thomas shares his 11-step recipe for creating a hit West End musical

    11-step recipe for creating a West End hit

    Richard Thomas, the lyricist behind the Jerry Springer and Anna Nicole Smith operas, explains how Bob Dylan, 'Breaking Bad' and even Noam Chomsky inspired his songbook for the new musical 'Made in Dagenham'
    Tonke Dragt's The Letter for the King has finally been translated into English ... 50 years on

    Buried treasure: The Letter for the King

    The coming-of-age tale about a boy and his mission to save a mythical kingdom has sold a million copies since it was written by an eccentric Dutchwoman in 1962. Yet until last year, no one had read it in English
    Can instilling a sense of entrepreneurship in pupils have a positive effect on their learning?

    The school that means business

    Richard Garner heads to Lancashire, where developing the 'dragons' of the future is also helping one community academy to achieve its educational goals
    10 best tablets

    The world in your pocket: 10 best tablets

    They’re thin, they’re light, you can use them for work on the move or keeping entertained
    Lutz Pfannenstiel: The goalkeeper who gave up Bayern Munich for the Crazy Gang, Bradford and a whirlwind trawl across continents

    Lutz Pfannenstiel interview

    The goalkeeper who gave up Bayern Munich for the Crazy Gang, Bradford and a whirlwind trawl across continents
    Pete Jenson: Popular Jürgen Klopp can reignite Borussia Dortmund’s season with visit to Bayern Munich

    Pete Jenson's a Different League

    Popular Klopp can reignite Dortmund’s season with visit to Bayern
    John Cantlie video proves that Isis expects victory in Kobani

    Cantlie video proves that Isis expects victory in Kobani

    The use of the British hostage demonstrates once again the militants' skill and originality in conducting a propaganda war, says Patrick Cockburn
    The killer instinct: The man who helps students spot potential murderers

    The killer instinct

    Phil Chalmers travels the US warning students how to spot possible future murderers, but can his contentious methods really stop the bloodshed?
    Clothing the gap: A new exhibition celebrates women who stood apart from the fashion herd

    Clothing the gap

    A new exhibition celebrates women who stood apart from the fashion herd
    Fall of the Berlin Wall: Goodbye to all that - the lost world beyond the Iron Curtain

    The Fall of the Berlin Wall

    Goodbye to all that - the lost world beyond the Iron Curtain