The Big Question: How does international adoption work, and is tighter regulation needed?

Why are we asking this now?

An American mother's decision to send her seven-year-old adopted son back to Russia, alone and with a note that she no longer wanted him, has horrified officials and adoption experts in both countries and made headline news worldwide. The treatment of the Russian boy, Artyom Savelyev, has been described as a "monstrous deed" by the Russian President, Dmitry Medvedev.

What exactly happened?

Artyom Savelyev was adopted from an orphanage last year by Torry-Ann Hansen of Tennessee. On Thursday, the single mother put him unaccompanied on a 10-hour flight to Moscow with a note stating: "I no longer wish to parent this child." The note is said to explain:"He is violent and has severe psychopathic issues/behaviour. I was lied to and misled by the Russian orphanage workers and director regarding his mental stability. They chose to grossly misrepresent those problems in order to get him out of their orphanage."

The Hansen family claims Artyom drew a picture of their house burning down and told anybody that he was going to burn it down with them in it. It is reported that his mother packed the boy's rucksack and told him he was going on an "excursion". Officials in the former Soviet Union deny these allegations, claiming Artyom had no mental health problems and the Russian media reported Hansen as having "cynically returned the child to Russia as if he was an unwanted purchase". Russia has since announced a freeze on child adoptions by US families.

Is this a one-off?

In an interview with ABC News, the Russian President said he had a "special concern" about the recent treatment of Russian children adopted by Americans. Peter Selman, author of Intercountry Adoption: development, trends and perspectives and visiting fellow at the School of Geography, Politics and Sociology at Newcastle University, confirms that cases range from "an American man who adopted a five-year-old Russian girl and abused her for 10 years right through to several cases of murder". International adoptions between other countries, however, don't seem to tell such sinister tales. In fact, research shows no evidence that international adoptions are any more likely to break down than domestic placements. One study of 165 children adopted from Romania found only two breakdowns and other research shows that most children adopted from overseas do well in terms of developmental outcomes.

What rules govern international adoption?

Worryingly lax ones in the US, where overseas adoptions – which form the bulk of adoptions – tend to be private and there are some notoriously unethical agencies which take large sums of money. There seems to be little protection in place for children themselves. Sheriff Randall Boyce even told ABC News that there may be no crime at all on the part of Hansen – merely "some bad judgement on the way she turned this child back".

Is it the same in the UK?

Here, the number of children adopted from overseas is relatively small – around 325 a year, less than 10 per cent of all adoptions – largely because rules are so strict. The figure would almost certainly be higher, had the process not been tightened up following the notorious case of the Kilshaws in 2000 – who paid to adopt twin sisters from abroad over the internet. The system was then changed so that anyone wishing to adopt from overseas must be assessed by a social worker in the UK, just as they would if applying to adopt domestically. The next step is to seek permission from the British Government to apply to the country in question. That country has to have signed up to the Hague Convention, which aims to ensure that in every adoption there is proof that adoption is genuinely in the best interests of the child.

Is there a pattern to adoptions that fail?

The British Association for Adoption and Fostering (BAAF) estimates that one in five adoptions breaks down. The older the child at placement, the more likely the chance of the placement failing. A major study by the Maudsley Hospital also shows that adoption breakdowns tend to happen longer after the child joins the family than in this case. These researchers found a disruption rate of 8 per cent after one year and 29 per cent six years later.

Are there additional risks involved from overseas?

Yes. "Often when you adopt a child from overseas, you will have very little background information," says a spokesman from BAAF. "The child may know nothing about his or her family of origin, which may pose significant issues for them as they get older, and medical reports for some countries may not reflect the true state of the child's health." As reports of orphanages abroad show, these children may also have suffered a particularly worrying form of neglect.

What about ethics?

Although the Hague Convention attempts to stop child-trafficking, some argue that what now happens is "child laundering" – that is, using the formal system to cover less than ideal circumstances. Madonna has been heavily criticised for adopting two children from Africa as "orphans" when they have a father.

Catriona Aldridge, who adopted three street children from Guatemala, was motivated by giving them a better life, but she's not so sure "rescuing" children, and bringing them thousands of miles from their roots, is always the answer. "It's not that I'm anti-adoption or that I regret adopting. But I believe more and more that we need to improve the situation for people – for women in particular – in these developing countries," she says.

The most prominent recent controversy surrounding international adoption is Haiti. Britain and the US cut red tape in order to facilitate adoption of the hundreds of children who were believed to have been orphaned by the January earthquake. Many argue that rushing the process could jeopardise family reunification and to date, the situation remains unresolved.

Why do particular countries feature so prominently as providers of children for adoption?

Most children adopted overseas come from China and Russia, but the numbers coming from China are dropping dramatically. Cynics say this is because the country recognises that this image doesn't look good and it doesn't like the idea of same-sex couples or single people adopting their children. Optimists say it's because they are starting to sort out their own problems. Either way, it is a reflection of how the countries people adopt from is constantly evolving. Some years back, the top countries were Guatemala and Romania. Not surprisingly, countries topping the list are often blighted by war or have faced natural disasters, or have had publicity surrounding the number of children in orphanages.



Is the system flawed?

In the US, it's hard to see another answer than yes. And even though the UK doesn't have the poor reputation that the US does, few would argue that our system is perfect. Countries including Denmark, where overseas adoption is far more common, criticises us for using social workers with very little expertise in the issues. Others argue that we need a central government agency dedicated to international adoption.

Is international adoption failing the children it should be helping?

Yes...

* Those adopted from overseas often point to being afflicted by two key issues – loss and racism



* Adopters often go overseas because rules at home make adoption difficult – a misguided starting point



* Without proper resources from governments, how can it ever be in children's best interests?

No...

* Children adopted from overseas are often saved from lives of misery and suffering



* Adopters often help their children to trace, find and maintain links with birth families



* There are many studies on international adoption, helping people to learn from past mistakes

New Articles
tvDownton Abbey Christmas special
Arts and Entertainment
Wolf (Nathan McMullen), Ian (Dan Starky), The Doctor (Peter Capaldi), Clara (Jenna Coleman), Santa Claus (Nick Frost) in the Doctor Who Christmas Special (BBC/Photographer: David Venni)
tvOur review of the Doctor Who Christmas Special
News
peopleIt seems you can't silence Katie Hopkins, even on Christmas Day...
News
news
PROMOTED VIDEO
Life and Style
ebookNow available in paperback
ebooks
ebookPart of The Independent’s new eBook series The Great Composers
News
i100
Arts and Entertainment
Left to right: Stanley Tucci, Sophie Grabol and Christopher Eccleston in ‘Fortitude’
tvSo Sky Atlantic arrived in Iceland to film their new and supposedly snow-bound series 'Fortitude'...
Arts and Entertainment
Jenna Coleman as Clara Oswald in the Doctor Who Christmas special
tvForget the rumours that Clara Oswald would be quitting the Tardis
Arts and Entertainment
Japanese artist Megumi Igarashi showing a small mascot shaped like a vagina
art
News
The Queen delivers her Christmas message
newsTwitter reacts to Her Majesty's Christmas Message
Arts and Entertainment
tv
Life and Style
fashion
Latest stories from i100
Have you tried new the Independent Digital Edition apps?

ES Rentals

    Independent Dating
    and  

    By clicking 'Search' you
    are agreeing to our
    Terms of Use.

    iJobs Job Widget
    iJobs General

    Recruitment Genius: Account Manager

    £20000 - £35000 per annum: Recruitment Genius: This full service social media ...

    Recruitment Genius: Data Analyst - Online Marketing

    £24000 - £35000 per annum: Recruitment Genius: We are 'Changemakers in retail'...

    Austen Lloyd: Senior Residential Conveyancer

    Very Competitive: Austen Lloyd: Senior Conveyancer - South West We are see...

    Austen Lloyd: Residential / Commercial Property Solicitor

    Excellent Salary: Austen Lloyd: DORSET MARKET TOWN - SENIOR PROPERTY SOLICITOR...

    Day In a Page

    A Christmas without hope: Fears grow in Gaza that the conflict with Israel will soon reignite

    Christmas without hope

    Gaza fears grow that conflict with Israel will soon reignite
    After 150 years, you can finally visit the grisliest museum in the country

    The 'Black Museum'

    After 150 years, you can finally visit Britain's grisliest museum
    No ho-ho-hos with Nick Frost's badass Santa

    No ho-ho-hos with Nick Frost's badass Santa

    Doctor Who Christmas Special TV review
    Chilly Christmas: Swimmers take festive dip for charity

    Chilly Christmas

    Swimmers dive into freezing British waters for charity
    Veterans' hostel 'overwhelmed by kindness' for festive dinner

    Homeless Veterans appeal

    In 2010, Sgt Gary Jamieson stepped on an IED in Afghanistan and lost his legs and an arm. He reveals what, and who, helped him to make a remarkable recovery
    Isis in Iraq: Yazidi girls killing themselves to escape rape and imprisonment by militants

    'Jilan killed herself in the bathroom. She cut her wrists and hanged herself'

    Yazidi girls killing themselves to escape rape and imprisonment
    Ed Balls interview: 'If I think about the deficit when I'm playing the piano, it all goes wrong'

    Ed Balls interview

    'If I think about the deficit when I'm playing the piano, it all goes wrong'
    He's behind you, dude!

    US stars in UK panto

    From David Hasselhoff to Jerry Hall
    Grace Dent's Christmas Quiz: What are you – a festive curmudgeon or top of the tree?

    Grace Dent's Christmas Quiz

    What are you – a festive curmudgeon or top of the tree?
    Nasa planning to build cloud cities in airships above Venus

    Nasa planning to build cloud cities in airships above Venus

    Planet’s surface is inhospitable to humans but 30 miles above it is almost perfect
    Surrounded by high-rise flats is a little house filled with Lebanon’s history - clocks, rifles, frogmen’s uniforms and colonial helmets

    Clocks, rifles, swords, frogmen’s uniforms

    Surrounded by high-rise flats is a little house filled with Lebanon’s history
    Return to Gaza: Four months on, the wounds left by Israel's bombardment have not yet healed

    Four months after the bombardment, Gaza’s wounds are yet to heal

    Kim Sengupta is reunited with a man whose plight mirrors the suffering of the Palestinian people
    Gastric surgery: Is it really the answer to the UK's obesity epidemic?

    Is gastric surgery really the answer to the UK's obesity epidemic?

    Critics argue that it’s crazy to operate on healthy people just to stop them eating
    Homeless Veterans appeal: Christmas charity auction Part 2 - now LIVE

    Homeless Veterans appeal: Christmas charity auction

    Bid on original art, or trips of a lifetime to Africa or the 'Corrie' set, and help Homeless Veterans
    Pantomime rings the changes to welcome autistic theatre-goers

    Autism-friendly theatre

    Pantomime leads the pack in quest to welcome all