Natural selection – it takes two: Darwin's rival Alfred Russel Wallace recognised at last

Explorer is finally taking his place beside Darwin in the theory of evolution

It's pretty much accepted that the origin of the theory of natural selection lies in the writings of Charles Darwin. But it seems the long-known scientific theory on evolution was itself subject to survival of the fittest. Experts are now claiming that at least some of the credit for everything we believe about how species develop should have gone to someone else.

Alfred Russel Wallace, they say, was the first to write a paper on the theory, but his efforts were crushed by the greater fame of the "gentleman naturalist" Darwin.

Dr George Beccaloni, a curator at the Natural History Museum, said yesterday: "Wallace was the one who had the paper ready for publication, and if he'd sent it directly to a journal it would have been published and natural selection would have been Wallace's discovery."

The comedian Bill Bailey, who does a stage show about the plight of Wallace and whose two-part documentary for the BBC is to be shown in March, puts it more bluntly: "He was robbed – whatever way you look at it."

Debate over who deserves credit for the theory of evolution has been re-ignited by the approach of the 100th anniversary of Wallace's death. The unveiling on Thursday by Bailey of a portrait of the Welsh-born scientist at the Natural History Museum in London opens a year-long celebration of Wallace's life and work.

Dr Beccaloni said there was no better time to recognise that, while Darwin had been working on the theory of natural selection for many years, Wallace had also been toiling away on the same idea. The two men made breakthroughs independently but Wallace was the first to write an explanation down in an essay. According to Dr Beccaloni, however, Wallace's mistake was sending the essay from Indonesia –where he had been researching for eight years – to Darwin, in the course of a correspondence between the two men.

The curator says Wallace had no idea his scientific pen pal been working on the same theory. And Darwin was apparently "horrified" when he received the paper, and immediately passed it on to his friends, two of Victorian England's most eminent scientists, Sir Charles Lyell and Dr Joseph Hooker.

The two then decided to release a joint paper containing the essay and excerpts from the writings of the much more famous and respected Darwin on natural selection. But Dr Beccaloni says their crime was that they did this without Wallace's knowledge.

In a letter to the German anthropologist A B Meyer in 1869, Wallace himself bears out this claim: "I sat down, wrote out the article, copied it, and sent it off by the next post to Mr Darwin. It was printed without my knowledge, and of course without any correction of proofs."

Dr Beccaloni said the actions of Lyell and Hooker were "pretty morally reprehensible".

Darwin's seminal On the Origin of Species was published 15 months later, in November 1859, cementing his place in history. But Bailey says: "If Wallace had not sent it to Darwin and [instead] sent it to a scientific journal, then he would have had priority and we would be talking about Wallaceism, not Darwinism."

http://www.nhm.ac.uk/nature-online/science-of-natural-history/wallace/index.html

Start your day with The Independent, sign up for daily news emails
ebooks
ebooksAn introduction to the ground rules of British democracy
Latest stories from i100
Have you tried new the Independent Digital Edition apps?
SPONSORED FEATURES
Independent Dating
and  

By clicking 'Search' you
are agreeing to our
Terms of Use.

iJobs Job Widget
iJobs General

Recruitment Genius: Clinical Lead / RGN

£40000 - £42000 per annum: Recruitment Genius: This is an exciting opportunity...

Recruitment Genius: IT Sales Consultant

£35000 - £40000 per annum: Recruitment Genius: This IT support company has a n...

Recruitment Genius: Works Engineer

Negotiable: Recruitment Genius: A works engineer is required in a progressive ...

Recruitment Genius: Trainee Hire Manager - Tool Hire

£21000 - £25000 per annum: Recruitment Genius: Our client is seeking someone w...

Day In a Page

Isis profits from destruction of antiquities by selling relics to dealers - and then blowing up the buildings they come from to conceal the evidence of looting

How Isis profits from destruction of antiquities

Robert Fisk on the terrorist group's manipulation of the market to increase the price of artefacts
Labour leadership: Andy Burnham urges Jeremy Corbyn voters to think again in last-minute plea

'If we lose touch we’ll end up with two decades of the Tories'

In an exclusive interview, Andy Burnham urges Jeremy Corbyn voters to think again in last-minute plea
Tunisia fears its Arab Spring could be reversed as the new regime becomes as intolerant of dissent as its predecessor

The Arab Spring reversed

Tunisian protesters fear that a new law will whitewash corrupt businessmen and officials, but they are finding that the new regime is becoming as intolerant of dissent as its predecessor
King Arthur: Legendary figure was real and lived most of his life in Strathclyde, academic claims

Academic claims King Arthur was real - and reveals where he lived

Dr Andrew Breeze says the legendary figure did exist – but was a general, not a king
Who is Oliver Bonas and how has he captured middle-class hearts?

Who is Oliver Bonas?

It's the first high-street store to pay its staff the living wage, and it saw out the recession in style
Earth has 'lost more than half its trees' since humans first started cutting them down

Axe-wielding Man fells half the world’s trees – leaving us just 422 each

However, the number of trees may be eight times higher than previously thought
60 years of Scalextric: Model cars are now stuffed with as much tech as real ones

60 years of Scalextric

Model cars are now stuffed with as much tech as real ones
Theme parks continue to draw in thrill-seekers despite the risks - so why are we so addicted?

Why are we addicted to theme parks?

Now that Banksy has unveiled his own dystopian version, Christopher Beanland considers the ups and downs of our endless quest for amusement
Tourism in Iran: The country will soon be opening up again after years of isolation

Iran is opening up again to tourists

After years of isolation, Iran is reopening its embassies abroad. Soon, there'll be the chance for the adventurous to holiday there
10 best PS4 games

10 best PS4 games

Can’t wait for the new round of blockbusters due out this autumn? We played through last year’s offering
Transfer window: Ten things we learnt

Ten things we learnt from the transfer window

Record-breaking spending shows FFP restraint no longer applies
Migrant crisis: UN official Philippe Douste-Blazy reveals the harrowing sights he encountered among refugees arriving on Lampedusa

‘Can we really just turn away?’

Dead bodies, men drowning, women miscarrying – a senior UN figure on the horrors he has witnessed among migrants arriving on Lampedusa, and urges politicians not to underestimate our caring nature
Nine of Syria and Iraq's 10 world heritage sites are in danger as Isis ravages centuries of history

Nine of Syria and Iraq's 10 world heritage sites are in danger...

... and not just because of Isis vandalism
Girl on a Plane: An exclusive extract of the novelisation inspired by the 1970 Palestinian fighters hijack

Girl on a Plane

An exclusive extract of the novelisation inspired by the 1970 Palestinian fighters hijack
Why Frederick Forsyth's spying days could spell disaster for today's journalists

Why Frederick Forsyth's spying days could spell disaster for today's journalists

The author of 'The Day of the Jackal' has revealed he spied for MI6 while a foreign correspondent