Tall, dark, handsome – and, er, red-faced. To the traditional attributes normally deemed attractive and desirable in men, we can now add the ruddy visage typified by, among others, Sir Alex Ferguson.
According to a new study, Manchester United's long-standing manager, renowned for his prowess as a tactician and motivational speaker, is the epitome of male dominance, aggression and ,in his lighter moments, attractiveness.
Researchers from the University of Nottingham, say that redness in facial skin enhances attractiveness – although too much tips over into appearing aggressive "to the detriment of attractiveness".
Red colouring in male primates, birds and fish has long been associated with social dominance and mate selection. But it was not been known whether this applied to humans.
To investigate, researchers carried out a study where women were allowed to manipulate the facial colour of computer pictures of men to make them as attractive, dominant or aggressive as possible.
"We have shown that increased redness enhances the appearance of dominance, aggression and attractiveness in men's faces viewed by women," say the researchers.
As the face gets redder it is increasingly seen as a sign of dominance: the colour is associated with testosterone, health and, in extreme cases, anger.
One theory is that a male face which is red but not too furious-looking is attractive to women because it is interpreted as an indication of good health. Indeed, a slight increase in redness caused by oxygenated blood perfusion is a marker of fitness.
But it can go too far. Most women are likely to be turned off by too much ruddiness: "The differences may reflect a trade-off between the benefits to females of choosing a healthy, dominant male and the costs of associating with an aggressive partner," say researchers.
Samantha Mann, research fellow and psychologist at the University of Portsmouth, said: "Red is often a colour of danger. A red face indicates physical or emotional exertion, and may be caused by factors such as intense anger, physical activity or alcohol consumption. Perhaps none of these are as appealing to a woman as a simple, healthy glow, but certainly the former two may be associated with dominance or aggression. Conversely, a pale face is more likely to be associated with fear or sickliness. Hence, it figures that a healthy pink is found to be most attractive in a potential mate."
Dr Mann added: "Examples of a very red face that people may see as aggressive might include, in extremis, the Red Skull villain from Marvel comics and film. A dominant but not aggressive face might be Sir Richard Branson or Bill Clinton, and a slightly red attractive face, Brad Pitt."