Have researchers bitten off more than they can chew in trying to uncover the secrets of the great white shark?

Ambitious mission begins to catch and tag as many Atlantic great whites as possible over three 20-day expeditions

The tourists who cram into Chatham, a tidy seaside resort on the Cape Cod peninsula, get their shark fix by watching Jaws, which plays nightly at the Orpheum on Main Street, or perhaps by buying a toy in one of the souvenir “shoppes”.

People seem to love sharks, especially the great whites made infamous by Steven Spielberg in his 1975 film, shot just across the water in Martha’s Vineyard.

Perhaps it’s the fearsome and mysterious glass-dead eyes. Or maybe it’s that line in the film: “You’re gonna need a bigger boat!”

One such bigger boat – better equipped and funded too – is a blue and white vessel, which the Chatham tourists might just spy anchored off the Monomoy National Wildlife Refuge, an eight-mile spit of sand extending south from the Massachussetts coastal town.

The MV Ocearch, once an Alaskan crabbing vessel, belongs to Chris Fischer, a man his friends describe as a cross between the late French marine documentary-maker and diver Jacques Cousteau and businessman Richard Branson.

“It can’t be even measured, it’s that huge,” Mr Fischer, 44, says of the current mission of his company – also called Ocearch.

That mission is to catch as many Atlantic great whites as possible over three 20-day expeditions this year, fit them with assorted electronic tags that will collect and transmit data about their habits and movements, and then, naturally, let them go. Understatement may not be Mr Fischer’s forte, but what he’s doing is a first in marine science (and rarely witnessed). Much of it is possible thanks to the giant hydraulic pistons that raise a 20ft platform from the ship’s deck and cantilever it over the side to just below the sea’s surface.

Lay a live shark on it and you can do all kinds of things that were previously impossible: not just attach the tags but also draw blood, take biopsies, examine it with ultrasound for pups and even (if it’s a male) express semen from its sex organs, called claspers.

Real great whites, rather than the mechanised kind used by Spielberg, are mythologized in part because scientists still know so little about them.

“For the first time in history we are closing a whole knowledge gap,” Mr Fischer says. “For example, we still don’t where the breeding grounds of the Atlantic great whites are.”

Spend even one day amid the sailors, scientists and fishermen (and one badly behaved dog named Nixie) on board the Ocearch and the sense of discovery is palpable.

Theories bubble up like gas from the ocean floor. Dr Greg Skomal, senior marine biologist for the state of Massachusetts, almost casually discusses the headline of a new science paper he has just submitted for publication. The consensus now is that a great white has a lifespan of about 20 years; his paper will argue they only mature in their mid-twenties and might live to 70 or more.

“We are pursuing about 12 projects at once,” Dr Skomal explains. “If we combine the results of all the projects, we can get a much bigger picture of the biology of the great white sharks in the Atlantic Ocean, which has been shrouded in mystery. This is all new stuff we are finding out.

“The reproductive cycle is so poorly understood in the Atlantic Ocean. The fact that we are doing an ultrasound on a great white shark is unheard of. I am living in an exciting time when I have moved from cutting up dead sharks to understand them to studying live ones.”

We are here in the shallow Cape Cod waters because it’s where great whites come in summer, drawn by congregations of grey seals on the sand bars and beaches of Monomoy.

At sunrise each day, Fischer and a couple of mates jump into a smaller boat, the Contender, to go great-white fishing. They trail chum on the end of their lines, which are fitted with large circle hooks.

When a shark bites, the Contender will tow it back to the Ocearch and, with a little manhandling from the crew, place it on the barely submerged platform. Get a great white on its side, water its gills constantly, place a shroud over those awful eyes and it will lie still.

Things don’t always work out the way they are meant to. Included in those things the crew doesn’t quite understand is why the great whites are proving so elusive here. So far on this expedition, running all of August, they have only caught two.

When news came from the Contender this Tuesday that they had snagged the second, crew members on the bigger ship punched the air.

Before long, lying on the platform was an immature female about 14ft long and weighing 2,300lb. She turned out to be a thrasher, threatening everyone with her angry tail.

Caught in just nine feet of water close to the beach, the shark – they name her Katherine – nonetheless gets the full treatment for 15 minutes, after which she is returned to the ocean.

A transponder that will send pings to receivers up and down the coast is inserted in her abdominal captivity. A tracking transponder with an aerial that will transmit to satellites whenever she surfaces is fixed to her dorsal fin.

Yet another tag, which will measure things such as depth and water temperature, is also anchored to her body. It will detach next spring, float up and send out its data.

The Ocearch team is on a mission to tag as many great white sharks as possible The Ocearch team is on a mission to tag as many great white sharks as possible (Getty)
Much excitement on this expedition surrounds Dr Nick Whitney of the Mote Marine Laboratory in Florida and his accelerometer tags. Using the same technology that helps a smartphone detect when you turn it sideways, these tags are designed to record much more than all the other devices.

“The older tags tell you where the shark goes, but this one actually tells us what the shark is doing,” Dr Whitney explains, holding one (they cost about £2,600 apiece) in his palm. “For instance, it tracks tail beats – how hard the shark is beating its tail and how fast it is beating its tail.”

The accelerometer, which is automatically released after 24 to 48 hours, has already shown how quickly the sharks seem to recover after being released by the research team.

Dr Whitney is also learning about how, when they descend, great whites stop all swimming motions, instead seeming almost to glide. “This may be a strategy to save energy but they may even be sleeping on their way to the bottom,” he says. “A power nap.”

Given that Mr Fischer’s main corporate sponsor, the Caterpillar Corporation, is reportedly giving him $2m (£1.3m) per year for three years – he won’t himself confirm this – landing and tagging only three sharks over two expeditions this year is surely disappointing.

If his haul doesn’t improve, the mission cost works out at something more than $600,000 (£385,000) per shark. Yet he and his sponsor are undeterred.

And don’t tell him it’s not worth it for a species that he says may soon be endangered thanks to shark hunters seeking their fins for Chinese cuisine: “Sharks generally are the balance-keepers of the ocean,” he asserts. “They are the lions of the ocean. Yet 200,000 will be finned (and therefore killed) today. The bottom of the ocean is littered with finned sharks – out of sight out of mind. We are literally trading the balance and the future of our oceans for a bowl of soup.”

It does not escape Mr Fischer that without the public’s fascination with sharks – thank you Steven Spielberg – his Ocearch venture would never have attracted sponsors.

Choose a less sexy species and forget all the fancy technology, the very big shark boat (and the media interest too). “No one would care, it would be ridiculous to argue with that,” he concedes.

But the Caterpillar cash is good until the end of 2015. He chose the bulldozer maker because “if I am to have a global impact on the future of the planet I needed a global partner”.

Everyone on board insists that the sharks come first, always. (Journalists are barred from broadcasting images of the hooks that catch them or any blood spilled while they are being fitted with the equipment.)

Yet, this is clearly also an entrepreneurial concern and, for Mr Fischer, there is an element of competition as well – with his French forebear. “Jacques Cousteau had done 27 expeditions when he was done,” he says. “I will have done 25 by the time I am 47.”

The journeys of the tagged sharks can be followed at ocearch.org

Start your day with The Independent, sign up for daily news emails
News
news
News
peopleIt seems you can't silence Katie Hopkins, even on Christmas Day...
New Articles
tvChristmas special reviewed
Arts and Entertainment
Wolf (Nathan McMullen), Ian (Dan Starky), The Doctor (Peter Capaldi), Clara (Jenna Coleman), Santa Claus (Nick Frost) in the Doctor Who Christmas Special (BBC/Photographer: David Venni)
tvOur review of the Doctor Who Christmas Special
PROMOTED VIDEO
Have you tried new the Independent Digital Edition apps?
ebooks
ebooksA year of political gossip, levity and intrigue from the sharpest pen in Westminster
News
i100
Arts and Entertainment
Jenna Coleman as Clara Oswald in the Doctor Who Christmas special
tvForget the rumours that Clara Oswald would be quitting the Tardis
Arts and Entertainment
Japanese artist Megumi Igarashi showing a small mascot shaped like a vagina
art
Life and Style
fashion
Arts and Entertainment
Left to right: Stanley Tucci, Sophie Grabol and Christopher Eccleston in ‘Fortitude’
tvSo Sky Atlantic arrived in Iceland to film their new and supposedly snow-bound series 'Fortitude'...
Arts and Entertainment
tv
News
The Queen delivers her Christmas message
newsTwitter reacts to Her Majesty's Christmas Message
Sport
sport
Latest stories from i100
Have you tried new the Independent Digital Edition apps?
Independent Dating
and  

By clicking 'Search' you
are agreeing to our
Terms of Use.

iJobs Job Widget
iJobs General

Ashdown Group: Internal Recruiter -Rugby, Warwickshire

£25000 - £30000 per annum: Ashdown Group: Internal Recruiter -Rugby, Warwicksh...

Ashdown Group: Marketing Manager/Marketing Controller (Financial Services)

£70000 - £75000 per annum + benefits: Ashdown Group: Marketing Manager/Marketi...

Recruitment Genius: Account Manager

£20000 - £35000 per annum: Recruitment Genius: This full service social media ...

Recruitment Genius: Data Analyst - Online Marketing

£24000 - £35000 per annum: Recruitment Genius: We are 'Changemakers in retail'...

Day In a Page

A Christmas without hope: Fears grow in Gaza that the conflict with Israel will soon reignite

Christmas without hope

Gaza fears grow that conflict with Israel will soon reignite
After 150 years, you can finally visit the grisliest museum in the country

The 'Black Museum'

After 150 years, you can finally visit Britain's grisliest museum
No ho-ho-hos with Nick Frost's badass Santa

No ho-ho-hos with Nick Frost's badass Santa

Doctor Who Christmas Special TV review
Chilly Christmas: Swimmers take festive dip for charity

Chilly Christmas

Swimmers dive into freezing British waters for charity
Veterans' hostel 'overwhelmed by kindness' for festive dinner

Homeless Veterans appeal

In 2010, Sgt Gary Jamieson stepped on an IED in Afghanistan and lost his legs and an arm. He reveals what, and who, helped him to make a remarkable recovery
Isis in Iraq: Yazidi girls killing themselves to escape rape and imprisonment by militants

'Jilan killed herself in the bathroom. She cut her wrists and hanged herself'

Yazidi girls killing themselves to escape rape and imprisonment
Ed Balls interview: 'If I think about the deficit when I'm playing the piano, it all goes wrong'

Ed Balls interview

'If I think about the deficit when I'm playing the piano, it all goes wrong'
He's behind you, dude!

US stars in UK panto

From David Hasselhoff to Jerry Hall
Grace Dent's Christmas Quiz: What are you – a festive curmudgeon or top of the tree?

Grace Dent's Christmas Quiz

What are you – a festive curmudgeon or top of the tree?
Nasa planning to build cloud cities in airships above Venus

Nasa planning to build cloud cities in airships above Venus

Planet’s surface is inhospitable to humans but 30 miles above it is almost perfect
Surrounded by high-rise flats is a little house filled with Lebanon’s history - clocks, rifles, frogmen’s uniforms and colonial helmets

Clocks, rifles, swords, frogmen’s uniforms

Surrounded by high-rise flats is a little house filled with Lebanon’s history
Return to Gaza: Four months on, the wounds left by Israel's bombardment have not yet healed

Four months after the bombardment, Gaza’s wounds are yet to heal

Kim Sengupta is reunited with a man whose plight mirrors the suffering of the Palestinian people
Gastric surgery: Is it really the answer to the UK's obesity epidemic?

Is gastric surgery really the answer to the UK's obesity epidemic?

Critics argue that it’s crazy to operate on healthy people just to stop them eating
Homeless Veterans appeal: Christmas charity auction Part 2 - now LIVE

Homeless Veterans appeal: Christmas charity auction

Bid on original art, or trips of a lifetime to Africa or the 'Corrie' set, and help Homeless Veterans
Pantomime rings the changes to welcome autistic theatre-goers

Autism-friendly theatre

Pantomime leads the pack in quest to welcome all