US Indian tribe enjoys the fruits of its 'best windfall since buffalo': The Pequots are bigger than Donald Trump in the world of gambling, writes Patrick Cockburn from Washington

'THEY DON'T look like Indians to me and they don't look like Indians to Indians,' said Donald Trump in words which led to immediate accusations of racism and bigotry. Mr Trump was attacking the tiny tribe of Mashantucket Pequot Indians in Connecticut whose casino, with profits of dollars 1m ( pounds 675m) a day, has just outgrown his own casinos in Atlantic City to become the largest in the United States.

He said: 'It will be the biggest scandal since Al Capone and it will destroy the gambling industry' if the Pequots and members of the 515 other Indian tribes in the US continue to exploit their status as sovereign nations to start casino gambling. Mr Trump, speaking to a Congressional committee, added: 'It's obvious that organised crime is rampant on the Indian reservations.'

The FBI immediately denied that it had any evidence that the mob was moving into gambling on the reservations. In Connecticut the Governor, Lowell Weicker, who signed the deal whereby the Pequots give dollars 113m a year to his state, sprang to the tribe's defence earlier this month, saying he objected more to Mr Trump than he did to casinos. In a rich exchange of insults he said he had come to a 'fast conclusion that we don't need that dirtbag in Connecticut'.

Mr Trump, denying he had meant to cast a slur on American Indians, said the Governor was 'a fat slob who couldn't get elected dog-catcher in Connecticut'. Mr Weicker admitted that he might have been a little tough in his language but then added: 'I can lose weight a lot faster than a bigot can lose bigotry.'

Envy is the clear motive for Mr Trump's criticism of the 280 Pequots, whose name means 'fox people', and the Foxwood's High Stakes Bingo & Casino enterprise which they own. Strategically placed between Boston and New York, it attracts 40,000 gamblers a day to its 230 gambling tables and 3,150 slot machines. The Pequot tribe which, 10 years ago, lived by growing lettuce and tapping maple syrup in the woods of south-east Connecticut, has become one of the state's biggest employers.

The tribe is not alone. Since Congress sanctioned gambling on Indian reservations in 1988, tribes across the country have seen casinos as their opportunity to escape poverty. 'Indian gaming is the best thing that's happened to our people since the buffalo,' says one tribe leader. Americans spend dollars 600bn a year on gambling and the 1.9 million Indians do not need much of this to make a drastic improvement to their lot.

From the Chippewa of Minnesota to the Seminole of Florida, the tribes are trying to do just that. It was, in fact, a Seminole chief named James Billie, who was also a student of Indian law, who first realised how the Indians could use a Supreme Court ruling in 1976 that their reservations were sovereign nations to move into serious gambling.

Given that tribal reservations were often small in size - the Pequots owned just 178 acres - or were carved out of the badlands, the court decision did not at first seem likely to do the Indians much good. But Chief Billie argued that, as a sovereign nation, the Seminoles could allow gambling, which was forbidden in the state of Florida. In 1979 he offered six-figure jackpot prizes in bingo, and Indian gambling took off.

In Connecticut the Pequot tribe had fallen on even harder times - thanks to a massacre by English settlers in 1637 - and in 1975 the reservation had just one resident, a 78-year-old woman called Elizabeth George. Fearing that, on her death, the State Parks Department would take over her land and the tribe become extinct, she persuaded her grandson, Richard 'Skip' Hayward, to return; he did, with 29 Pequots.

In 1985, tutored by the Seminole, the Pequots opened their first bingo hall. Mr Hayward's task was complicated by the fact that many Pequots had become Jehovah's Witnesses and were doubtful about the ethics of gambling. Backed by Lim GohTong, a Malaysian magnate, the Pequots diversified into blackjack, craps and roulette.

Not all Indians can share in the new prosperity. Gamblers who visit their casinos are middle-class Americans, not high rollers. The Sioux are building a casino in South Dakota but in the Great Plains there are too few gamblers to produce profits of the size made by the Pequot and Seminole tribes. Although 72 tribes have gambling, some reject big-time casinos and stick to bingo.

For the first time in 500 years, membership of an Indian tribe may be a passport to wealth, so the number of Americans claiming to be Indian has risen sharply. Mr Trump is not alone in wondering about the the ethnic origins of some Indians with

Anglo-Saxon names and appearances.

A tribe must be recognised by Washington before it can exercise its rights, but even an unrecognised tribe, such as the Golden Hill Paugussetts of Connecticut, can cause trouble. Encouraged by Pequot success, the Paugussetts have gone to court to claim 84 square miles of the state, including some of its richest suburbs, as tribal land.

Start your day with The Independent, sign up for daily news emails
Life and Style
A monstrous idea? Body transplants might no longer be science fiction
Science An Italian neurosurgeon believes so - and it's not quite as implausible as it sounds, says Steve Connor
Demba Ba (right) celebrates after Besiktas win on penalties
footballThere was no happy return to the Ataturk Stadium, where the Reds famously won Champions League
Arts and Entertainment
Natural beauty: Aidan Turner stars in the new series of Poldark
arts + ents
Mia Freedman, editorial director of the Mamamia website, reads out a tweet she was sent.
arts + ents
Have you tried new the Independent Digital Edition apps?
ebooksA special investigation by Andy McSmith
Arts and Entertainment
The write stuff: masters of story-telling James Joyce, left, and Thomas Hardy
arts + ents...begging to differ, John Walsh can't even begin to number the ways
Image from a flyer at the CPAC event where Nigel Farage will be speaking
Latest stories from i100
Have you tried new the Independent Digital Edition apps?
Independent Dating

By clicking 'Search' you
are agreeing to our
Terms of Use.

iJobs Job Widget
iJobs General

Recruitment Genius: Bookkeeper

£23000 - £26000 per annum: Recruitment Genius: This small, friendly, proactive...

Recruitment Genius: Photographic Event Crew

£14500 - £22800 per annum: Recruitment Genius: This is a fantastic opportunity...

Recruitment Genius: Software Developers - .NET / ASP.NET / WebAPI / JavaScript

Negotiable: Recruitment Genius: A Software Developer is required to join a lea...

Austen Lloyd: Corporate Tax Solicitor - City

Excellent Salary: Austen Lloyd: A first rate opportunity to join a top ranking...

Day In a Page

HIV pill: Scientists hail discovery of 'game-changer' that cuts the risk of infection among gay men by 86%

Scientists hail daily pill that protects against HIV infection

Breakthrough in battle against global scourge – but will the NHS pay for it?
How we must adjust our lifestyles to nature: Welcome to the 'Anthropocene', the human epoch

Time to play God

Welcome to the 'Anthropocene', the human epoch where we may need to redefine nature itself
MacGyver returns, but with a difference: Handyman hero of classic 1980s TV series to be recast as a woman

MacGyver returns, but with a difference

Handyman hero of classic 1980s TV series to be recast as a woman
Tunnel renaissance: Why cities are hiding roads down in the ground

Tunnel renaissance

Why cities are hiding roads underground
'Backstreet Boys - Show 'Em What You're Made Of': An affectionate look at five middle-aged men

Boys to men

The Backstreet Boys might be middle-aged, married and have dodgy knees, but a heartfelt documentary reveals they’re not going gently into pop’s good night
Crufts 2015: Should foreign dogs be allowed to compete?

Crufts 2015

Should foreign dogs be allowed to compete?
10 best projectors

How to make your home cinema more cinematic: 10 best projectors

Want to recreate the big-screen experience in your sitting room? IndyBest sizes up gadgets to form your film-watching
Manchester City 1 Barcelona 2 player ratings: Luis Suarez? Lionel Messi? Joe Hart? Who was the star man?

Manchester City vs Barcelona player ratings

Luis Suarez? Lionel Messi? Joe Hart? Who was the star man at the Etihad?
Arsenal vs Monaco: Monaco - the making of Gunners' manager Arsene Wenger

Monaco: the making of Wenger

Jack Pitt-Brooke speaks to former players and learns the Frenchman’s man-management has always been one of his best skills
Cricket World Cup 2015: Chris Gayle - the West Indies' enigma lives up to his reputation

Chris Gayle: The West Indies' enigma

Some said the game's eternal rebel was washed up. As ever, he proved he writes the scripts by producing a blistering World Cup innings
In Ukraine a dark world of hybrid warfare and murky loyalties prevails

In Ukraine a dark world of hybrid warfare

This war in the shadows has been going on since the fall of Mr Yanukovych
'Birdman' and 'Bullets Over Broadway': Homage or plagiarism?

Homage or plagiarism?

'Birdman' shares much DNA with Woody Allen's 'Bullets Over Broadway'
Broadchurch ends as damp squib not even David Tennant can revive

A damp squib not even David Tennant can revive

Broadchurch, Series 2 finale, review
A Koi carp breeding pond, wall-mounted iPads and a bathroom with a 'wellness' shower: inside the mansion of Germany's 'Bishop of Bling'

Inside the mansion of Germany's 'Bishop of Bling'

A Koi carp breeding pond, wall-mounted iPads and a bathroom with a 'wellness' shower