Manners makyth man. Etiquette's just nonsense

The idea of social cohesion is under threat from modern eating practices

Share
Related Topics

It's all right to eat with your fingers in a restaurant now, according to the revised guide to modern table manners produced by that arbiter of etiquette, Debrett's. This will not exactly come as news to anyone who frequents their local curry house or has noticed the dearth of cutlery in McDonald's.

But it is, no doubt, very welcome to the owners of Pizza Express who commissioned the new guide as they introduce calzone to their menus. This folded pizza can be eaten with the fingers, the posh person's primer pronounced, even though, with all that oozing cheese, it is the pizza most likely to make a mess – the state of affairs Debrett's insists is most to be avoided at even informal tables.

Only someone who mistook the cosy anachronisms of Downton Abbey for the real world would object to the dismissal of some of the more arcane social conventions surrounding the dining room. Jane Austen had great fun with the snobbery of placement. Remember the consternation in Pride and Prejudice when the heroine's younger sister returns as a married woman and is elevated in precedence to sit nearer to their father?

Then there are the old snobberies about whether we should say pudding or dessert, but certainly not sweet, which is terribly déclassé. Or the unspeakable faux pas of continuing to eat after the Queen has put down her cutlery; haven't we all been there?

Codes of behaviour surrounding food have been in place ever since the Maxims of Ptahhotep were written by a pharoanic steward in Egypt 45 centuries ago. Human history has been distinguished thereafter by two distinct approaches. Etiquette is designed to exclude those outside the inner circle. Manners, by contrast, are designed to include, by putting others, even social inferiors, at their ease. To spot the difference contrast the Edwardian dowager hostess who ate slowly, spinning out her meal until she was sure her most tardy guest was finished, with the harridan stepmother who earlier this year wrote to her son's betrothed telling her not to start eating before everyone else or take additional helpings before being invited.

Styles of courtesy change with the years. Manners are a sign of the tines – for all those old fogeys who know what tines are (the prongs of a fork). To eat peas politely, by the way, they should be crushed onto the fork – with the tines pointing downwards; never scooped, just as you should never tilt your soup bowl towards you. It is also rude to take photographs while eating, one guide says. Photographs! In our house we were too busy with other things. "No singing at the table" was one of my father's rules, which reveals something of the natural proclivities of the Vallely clan.

Everyone and everywhere is very different on this. Never eat, or pass anything at table, with your left hand, in Africa or the Middle East; that hand being reserved for wiping your bum. There are all manner of singularities. In Japan you should use the reverse end of your chopsticks to retrieve food from the communal bowl, not the end which has been in your mouth. In Cambodia if you finish everything on your plate it means you want more; in Japan it's rude not to clear your bowl.

Much of this is arbitrary. In England food is served from the right but drink from the left. Fish bones may be extracted from the mouth with the fingers, but every other unpleasant object should be removed with the fork. Cutlery should be placed on the outer rim of the plate between bites, and never – heaven forfend – rested like a gangplank between plate and table. Napkins should be used to dab the mouth but never to wipe it, says the updated Debrett's guide.

All this is bollocks but gives confidence to those who know it and know others know it. This is the world of Debrett's New Guide to Etiquette and Modern Manners, which, inter alia, informs us that men should use black ink in their fountain pens while blue is more "suitable for women". Only schoolboys use blue-black. Where this leaves my Diamine Teal is unclear.

But there is more to manners than convention. The word companion – cum, with; panis, bread – comes from the Latin for someone with whom you eat. It is the idea of social cohesion that is most under threat from modern eating practices. Some neighbours recently sold their dining table as they never used it now; they eat on trays in front of the telly. Worse still, they do not even do that together. They feed at different times, as suits, the husband in the living room, the wife in the kitchen, the teenager before his computer. The breaking of bread is shrunken to shovelling solipsism.

The majority of Britons no longer eat together as a family, several surveys have shown. Even when they do, four in 10 think nothing of using a smart phone to text or check emails while at table. This is more than just a decline in companionability, civility or grace; it represents a weakening of bonds that are fundamental to the essence of society. Manners makyth man, said the great 14th century educationalist, William of Wykeham. People are made, not born, the philosopher said, and they are made by their relation to others. Ubuntu, the Africans call it.

That is what counts. And whether we use cutlery or fingers is neither here nor there.

React Now

Latest stories from i100
Have you tried new the Independent Digital Edition apps?
iJobs Job Widget
iJobs General

Ashdown Group: Senior PHP Developer - OOP, Javascript, HTML, CSS, SQL

£39000 per annum: Ashdown Group: Senior PHP Developer - OOP, Javascript, HTML,...

Austen Lloyd: Commercial / Residential Property - Surrey

Excellent Salary: Austen Lloyd: SURREY MARKET TOWN - SENIOR PROPERTY SOLICITOR...

Recruitment Genius: Graduate Programme - Online Location Services Business

Negotiable: Recruitment Genius: What do you want to do with your career? Do yo...

Recruitment Genius: Senior QC Scientist

Negotiable: Recruitment Genius: This company is a leading expert in immunoassa...

Day In a Page

Read Next
File: David Cameron offers a toast during a State Dinner in his honour March 14, 2012  

I saw the immigration lies a mile off - and now nobody can deny it

Nigel Farage
The Uber app allows passengers to hail a taxi with a smartphone  

Who wouldn’t like a sharing economy? Well, me, for one

Mary Dejevsky
Homeless Veterans Christmas Appeal: ‘We give them hope. They come to us when no one else can help’

Christmas Appeal

Meet the charity giving homeless veterans hope – and who they turn to when no one else can help
Should doctors and patients learn to plan humane, happier endings rather than trying to prolong life?

Is it always right to try to prolong life?

Most of us would prefer to die in our own beds, with our families beside us. But, as a GP, Margaret McCartney sees too many end their days in a medicalised battle
Thomas Cook's outgoing boss Harriet Green got by on four hours sleep a night - is that what it takes for women to get to the top?

What does it take for women to get to the top?

Thomas Cook's outgoing boss Harriet Green got by on four hours sleep a night and told women they had to do more if they wanted to get on
Christmas jumper craze: Inside the UK factory behind this year's multicultural must-have

Knitting pretty: British Christmas Jumpers

Simmy Richman visits Jack Masters, the company behind this year's multicultural must-have
French chefs have launched a campaign to end violence in kitchens - should British restaurants follow suit?

French chefs campaign against bullying

A group of top chefs signed a manifesto against violence in kitchens following the sacking of a chef at a Paris restaurant for scalding his kitchen assistant with a white-hot spoon
Radio 4 to broadcast 10-hour War and Peace on New Year's Day as Controller warns of cuts

Just what you need on a New Year hangover...

Radio 4 to broadcast 10-hour adaptation of War and Peace on first day of 2015
Cuba set to stage its first US musical in 50 years

Cuba to stage first US musical in 50 years

Claire Allfree finds out if the new production of Rent will hit the right note in Havana
Christmas 2014: 10 best educational toys

Learn and play: 10 best educational toys

Of course you want them to have fun, but even better if they can learn at the same time
Paul Scholes column: I like Brendan Rodgers as a manager but Liverpool seem to be going backwards not forwards this season

Paul Scholes column

I like Brendan Rodgers as a manager but Liverpool seem to be going backwards not forwards this season
Lewis Moody column: Stuart Lancaster has made all the right calls – now England must deliver

Lewis Moody: Lancaster has made all the right calls – now England must deliver

So what must the red-rose do differently? They have to take the points on offer 
Cameron, Miliband and Clegg join forces for Homeless Veterans campaign

Cameron, Miliband and Clegg join forces for Homeless Veterans campaign

It's in all our interests to look after servicemen and women who fall on hard times, say party leaders
Millionaire Sol Campbell wades into wealthy backlash against Labour's mansion tax

Sol Campbell cries foul at Labour's mansion tax

The former England defender joins Myleene Klass, Griff Rhys Jones and Melvyn Bragg in criticising proposals
Nicolas Sarkozy returns: The ex-President is preparing to fight for the leadership of France's main opposition party – but will he win big enough?

Sarkozy returns

The ex-President is preparing to fight for the leadership of France's main opposition party – but will he win big enough?
Is the criticism of Ed Miliband a coded form of anti-Semitism?

Is the criticism of Miliband anti-Semitic?

Attacks on the Labour leader have coalesced around a sense that he is different, weird, a man apart. But is the criticism more sinister?
Ouija boards are the must-have gift this Christmas, fuelled by a schlock horror film

Ouija boards are the must-have festive gift

Simon Usborne explores the appeal - and mysteries - of a century-old parlour game