Anniversaries

Births: Richard Baxter, Puritan minister, scholar and writer, 1615; Edward Vernon ("Old Grog"), Admiral, 1684; Jacques-Alexandre Cesar Charles, physicist and inventor, 1746; Gerhard Johann von Scharnhorst, Prussian soldier, 1755; Mrs Amelia Opie (Amelia Alderson), novelist, 1769; Martin Gustav Nottebohm, writer on music, 1817; Gustav Adolf Merkel, organist and composer, 1827; Alexander Porfirievich Borodin, composer, 1833; Francois- Auguste Rodin, sculptor, 1840; John William Strutt, third Baron Rayleigh, physicist, 1842; Sun Yat-sen, first president of China, 1866; Richard A. Whiting, popular composer, 1891; Princess Grace of Monaco (Grace Patricia Kelly), 1929.

Deaths: Pope Boniface III, 607; Canute (the Great), King of England and Denmark, 1035; Stephen Gardiner, bishop of Winchester, 1555; Sir John Hawkins, naval commander and navigator, 1595; Thomas Fairfax, third Baron Fairfax of Cameron, Parliamentary army Commander-in-Chief, 1671; Jean- Sylvan Bailly, astronomer and first mayor of Paris, guillotined 1793; Michel-Guillaume Jean de Crevecoeur, writer, 1813; William Hayley, poet and biographer, 1820; Jean Baptiste Regnault, painter, 1829; Charles Kemble, actor, 1854; Mrs Elizabeth Cleghorn Gaskell, novelist, 1865; Johann Friedrich Overbeck, painter, 1869; Gottfried Kinkel, poet, 1882; Percival Lowell, astronomer, 1916; George David Birkhoff, mathematician, 1944; Emma Magdalena Rosalia Marie Josepha Barbara, Baroness Orczy, novelist, 1947; Umberto Giordano, composer, 1948; Charles Rudolf Friml, composer, 1972; Walter Hamor Piston, composer, 1976; John Innes Mackintosh Stewart ("Michael Innes"), literary scholar and writer, 1994.

On this day: John Bunyan, writer, was arrested for preaching without a licence, 1660; the Battle of Sheriffmuir was fought between Jacobites and Royalists, 1715; the River Liffey rose, causing floods and damage to Dublin, 1787; Wolfe Tone, Irish politician, was tried and sentenced to be hanged (but he committed suicide, dying 19 November), 1798; the first Jewish newspaper in Britain, the Jewish Chronicle, was published, 1841; Sir James Young Simpson was the first to use chloroform as an anaesthetic in Britain, 1847; the first flying-trapeze act was performed by Jules Leotard at the Cirque Napoleon, Paris, 1859; a great eruption of Mount Vesuvius occurred, 1867; Enrico Caruso recorded Vesti la Giubba, producing the first gramophone record to sell a million copies, 1902; the remains of Captain Scott and his companions were found in Antarctica, 1912; King Ludwig III (formerly Regent), acceded to the throne of Bavaria, 1913; at the request of the islanders, Britain annexed the Gilbert and Ellice Islands, 1915; the Emperor Karl of Austria-Hungary abdicated, and Austria became a republic, 1918; the first automatic telephone service was inaugurated in London, 1927; in new elections in Germany, the Nazis received 92 per cent of the votes, 1933; the German battleship Tirpitz was sunk, 1944.

Today is the Feast Day of St Astrik or Anastasius, St Benedict of Benevento, St Cadwalader, St Cumian the Tall, St Cunibert, St Emilian Cucullatus, St Josaphat of Polotsk, St Lebuin or Liafwine, St Livinus, St Machar or Mochumma and St Nilus the Elder.

Arts and Entertainment
Chocolat author Joanne Harris has spoken about the financial struggles most authors face

books
Arts and Entertainment
A scene from How To Train Your Dragon 2

Review: Imaginative storytelling returns with vigour

film
Arts and Entertainment
Josh Hutcherson, Donald Sutherland and Jena Malone in Mockinjay: Part 1

film
Arts and Entertainment

film
Arts and Entertainment
Characters in the new series are based on real people, say its creators, unlike Arya and Clegane the Dog in ‘Game of Thrones’
tv
PROMOTED VIDEO
Have you tried new the Independent Digital Edition apps?
Arts and Entertainment
Unless films such as Guardians of the Galaxy, pictured, can buck the trend, this summer could be the first in 13 years that not a single Hollywood blockbuster takes $300m

tv
Arts and Entertainment
Miley Cyrus has her magic LSD brain stolen in this crazy video produced with The Flaming Lips

music
Arts and Entertainment
Gay icons: Sesame Street's Bert (right) and Ernie

tv
Arts and Entertainment
Singer Robin Thicke and actress Paula Patton

music
Arts and Entertainment
The new film will be shot in the same studios as the Harry Potter films

books
Arts and Entertainment
Duncan Bannatyne left school at 15 and was still penniless at 29

Bannatyne leaves Dragon's Den

TV
Arts and Entertainment
The French economist Thomas Piketty wrote that global inequality has worsened

books
Arts and Entertainment
David Tennant and Benedict Cumberbatch

TV
Arts and Entertainment
Ben Affleck plays a despondent Nick Dunne in David Fincher's 'Gone Girl'

film
Arts and Entertainment
Pete Doherty (L) and Carl Barât look at the scene as people begin to be crushed

music
Arts and Entertainment

tv
Arts and Entertainment
Pete Doherty and Caral Barat of The Libertines performs on stage at British Summer Time Festival at Hyde Park

music
Arts and Entertainment
Ariana Grande and Iggy Azalea perform on stage at the Billboard Music Awards 2014

music
Arts and Entertainment

theatre
Arts and Entertainment
Zina Saro-Wiwa

art
Arts and Entertainment
All-new couples 'Come Dine With Me'

TV
Arts and Entertainment

TV
Arts and Entertainment

TV
Arts and Entertainment
Black Sabbath's Ozzy Osbourne
musicReview: BST Hyde Park, London
Arts and Entertainment
Ed Gamble and Amy Hoggart star in Almost Royal burning bright productions
tvTV comedy following British ‘aristos’ is accused of mocking the trusting nature of Americans
Independent
Travel Shop
the manor
Up to 70% off luxury travel
on city breaks Find out more
santorini
Up to 70% off luxury travel
on chic beach resorts Find out more
sardina foodie
Up to 70% off luxury travel
on country retreats Find out more
Have you tried new the Independent Digital Edition apps?

ES Rentals

    Independent Dating
    and  

    By clicking 'Search' you
    are agreeing to our
    Terms of Use.

    A History of the First World War in 100 Moments: Peace without magnanimity - the summit in a railway siding that ended the fighting

    A History of the First World War in 100 Moments

    Peace without magnanimity - the summit in a railway siding that ended the fighting
    Scottish independence: How the Commonwealth Games could swing the vote

    Scottish independence: How the Commonwealth Games could swing the vote

    In the final part of our series, Chris Green arrives in Glasgow - a host city struggling to keep the politics out of its celebration of sport
    Out in the cold: A writer spends a night on the streets and hears the stories of the homeless

    A writer spends a night on the streets

    Rough sleepers - the homeless, the destitute and the drunk - exist in every city. Will Nicoll meets those whose luck has run out
    Striking new stations, high-speed links and (whisper it) better services - the UK's railways are entering a new golden age

    UK's railways are entering a new golden age

    New stations are opening across the country and our railways appear to be entering an era not seen in Britain since the early 1950s
    Conchita Wurst becomes a 'bride' on the Paris catwalk - and proves there is life after Eurovision

    Conchita becomes a 'bride' on Paris catwalk

    Alexander Fury salutes the Eurovision Song Contest winner's latest triumph
    Pétanque World Championship in Marseilles hit by

    Pétanque 'world cup' hit by death threats

    This year's most acrimonious sporting event took place in France, not Brazil. How did pétanque get so passionate?
    Whelks are healthy, versatile and sustainable - so why did we stop eating them in the UK?

    Why did we stop eating whelks?

    Whelks were the Victorian equivalent of the donor kebab and our stocks are abundant. So why do we now export them all to the Far East?
    10 best women's sunglasses

    In the shade: 10 best women's sunglasses

    From luxury bespoke eyewear to fun festival sunnies, we round up the shades to be seen in this summer
    Germany vs Argentina World Cup 2014: Lionel Messi? Javier Mascherano is key for Argentina...

    World Cup final: Messi? Mascherano is key for Argentina...

    No 10 is always centre of attention but Barça team-mate is just as crucial to finalists’ hopes
    Siobhan-Marie O’Connor: Swimmer knows she needs Glasgow joy on road to Rio

    Siobhan-Marie O’Connor: Swimmer needs Glasgow joy on road to Rio

    18-year-old says this month’s Commonwealth Games are a key staging post in her career before time slips away
    The true Gaza back-story that the Israelis aren’t telling this week

    The true Gaza back-story that the Israelis aren’t telling this week

    A future Palestine state will have no borders and be an enclave within Israel, surrounded on all sides by Israeli-held territory, says Robert Fisk
    A History of the First World War in 100 Moments: The German people demand an end to the fighting

    A History of the First World War in 100 Moments

    The German people demand an end to the fighting
    New play by Oscar Wilde's grandson reveals what the Irish wit said at his trials

    New play reveals what Oscar Wilde said at trials

    For a century, what Wilde actually said at his trials was a mystery. But the recent discovery of shorthand notes changed that. Now his grandson Merlin Holland has turned them into a play
    Can scientists save the world's sea life from

    Can scientists save our sea life?

    By the end of the century, the only living things left in our oceans could be plankton and jellyfish. Alex Renton meets the scientists who are trying to turn the tide
    Richard III, Trafalgar Studios, review: Martin Freeman gives highly intelligent performance

    Richard III review

    Martin Freeman’s psychotic monarch is big on mockery but wanting in malice