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The Independent Culture
TODAY: Births: Ivan Petrovich Pavlov, physiologist, 1849; Sir Barnes Wallis, airship and bomb designer, 1887; Thomas Stearns Eliot, poet and playwright, 1888; Martin Heidegger, philosopher, 1889; Pope Paul VI (Giovanni Battista Montini), 1897; George Gershwin (Jacob Gershvin), composer, 1898. Deaths: Bishop Lancelot Andrewes, theologian, 1626; James Keir Hardie, Labour party pioneer, 1915; Bela Bartk, composer, 1945; Hugh John Lofting, author and creator of "Dr Dolittle", 1947; Alberto Moravia, writer, 1990. On this day: the Venetians destroyed the Parthenon in a bombardment, 1687; Lord Rothermere became the principal proprietor of the Daily Mail, 1922; the liner Queen Mary was launched by Queen Mary, 1934; sugar rationing ended in Britain, 1953. Today is the Feast Day of St Colman of Land-Elo, Saints Cosmas and Damian, St John of Meda and St Nilus of Rossano.

TOMORROW: Births: Sir William Empson, poet and critic, 1906; Sir Martin Ryle, Astronomer Royal, 1918. Deaths: William of Wykeham, founder of Winchester College and New College, Oxford, 1404; Hilaire-Germain Edgar Degas, painter, 1917; Aimee Semple McPherson, evangelist, 1944; Aristide Maillol, painter and sculptor, 1944; Gerald Finzi, composer, 1956; Dame Gracie Fields, singer and entertainer, 1979. On this day: the Society of Jesus was founded, 1540; Mount Ararat was climbed for the first time, 1830; Constantine I abdicated as King of Greece, 1923; the liner Queen Elizabeth was launched by Queen Elizabeth, now the Queen Mother, 1938; Hitler announced his intention to annex the Sudetenland, 1939; the first London performance of the musical Hair was presented, 1968. Tomorrow is the Feast Day of St Barrog or Barnoch, St Elzear of Sabran and St Vincent de Paul.