Charles Darwent on Schwitters in Britain: Sweet wrappers that made fascists quail

Kurt Schwitters, the German one-man avant-garde, was neglected in his adopted Britain but did the spadework for generations of artists

The Tate's new show sounds like a send-up. What would the madcap Merzman be doing here in the Lake District for seven years?

On 19 June 1940, the artist Kurt Schwitters stepped off an ice-breaker and on to the quay at Leith. For the previous three years he had lived in Norway, in flight from the Nazis.

Born in Hanover in 1887, Schwitters had, in 1919, tried to join the Berlin chapter of Dada – the anarchic anti-art movement born of the Great War – and been turned down as an Expressionist. Not one to take no for an answer, his response was a one-man movement called Merz, the name lifted from a piece of paper stamped Commerz und Privatbank, which Schwitters had put in a collage, or Merzbild (Merz-picture). Over the next two decades, the garrulous German became a key figure in the Continental avant garde, flirting with De Stijl and Constructivism, joining the Paris group Abstraction-Création.

Two decades before Homo Ludens, Schwitters was Johan Huizinga's playful man. One of his earliest pieces, Merzbild 46A. Das Kegelbild, takes the form of a skittle-board. They are games of intent, though, their visual puns exposing a society that is at heart absurd. Like a big kid, Schwitters kicks over our social sandcastles. One collage, Mz. 307, bears a bus ticket stamped "Erwachsene 1 Platz" – one adult seat. Adulthood was never for him.

And then, in 1937, came Entartete Kunst, and Schwitters's unruly mind-games fell foul of the Nazis. When Goebbels' exhibition of Degenerate Art opened in Munich in July 1937, it contained four Merz works. Earlier that year, their maker had joined his son, Ernst, in exile near Oslo. Three years after that, with the Germans in Norway, Schwitters boarded the boat to Leith.

So how is it that this comes as news to most people? When Schwitters died in January 1948, he had been in Britain for nearly eight years. In love with the place, and with an English woman he nicknamed "Wantee" for her endless cuppas, he had applied for British citizenship: it came through on the day he died. His last great work – the fourth in a series of live-in sculptures called Merzbau, or Merz constructions – was installed in a barn in Ambleside. And yet the idea of Kurt Schwitters as an artist in Britain still seems odd.

For this we have to thank the same native insularity that has made us forget the British period of other giants of the Continental avant garde: Piet Mondrian, Naum Gabo, László Moholy-Nagy and John Heartfield, who all moved here in the 1930s. The critic Raymond Mortimer put it well, reviewing a show called Twentieth Century German Art held in Mayfair in 1938 as a riposte to Entartete Kunst, (the Nazis' "degenerate art"), and in which Schwitters had two works. Hitler was reported to have been infuriated by the London show. "[Britons] who go to it are only too likely to say, 'If Hitler doesn't like these pictures, then it's the best thing I've heard about Hitler,'" Mortimer wrote.

So Schwitters in Britain is various things: a much-needed attempt to write its subject back into English art history; a cleverly curated bringing-together of the work Schwitters made while he was here; and a gentle massaging of the facts.

There is no doubt that Schwitters found the English and their language stimulating. His magpie eye finds treasures everywhere, and they are specifically local treasures. A collage called Bassett includes the wrapper from a brand of licorice allsorts. Another work – sweets were rationed – bears a scrap of paper with the legend "[choc]olate [pep]permint".

These strange part-words, freed from meaning, become like runes. And even his humour seems to take on a self-deprecating English cast. The wrapper of the last-mentioned work, En Morn, sits over a headline cut from a newspaper. It reads, "These are the things we are fighting for".

And yet Mortimer's prediction was correct. Although this show emphasises Schwitters' links with the British avant garde, in truth they were sparse. Artists such as Ben Nicholson and Barbara Hepworth were too busy struggling themselves to bother with a nutty German. Letters to Kenneth Clark, in whose gift lay official war art commissions, bore no fruit. Nor did attempts to reach an audience for Merzbilden: one of the most poignant objects in this show is a rejection slip from the 1941 Royal Academy Summer Exhibition.

To make ends meet, Schwitters painted the portraits of Cumbrian worthies – £1 for a bust, a guinea with hands. A decade after his malnourished death, his work was discovered by Richard Hamilton and Eduardo Paolozzi. Without the Merzman there would have been no Pop Art, and so no Emin or Rauschenberg. It's a sad story, but one that needs to be told.

To 12 May (020-7887 8888)

Critic's choice

Woo! It's Juergen Teller. That's not just a whoop of excitement, it is also the name of the exhibition by the German photographer at the ICA in London – but it's apt for this startling, sexy show, which features plenty of fashion names, actresses and rock stars (till 17 Mar). There is photography on show at Tate St Ives too, drawn from the 30-year career of Peter Fraser, who turns his lens on found objects (till 6 May).

Arts and Entertainment
Rachel McAdams in True Detective season 2

TV review
Arts and Entertainment
Off the wall: the cast of ‘Life in Squares’

TV
Arts and Entertainment

Books And it is whizzpopping!

Arts and Entertainment
Bono throws water at the crowd while the Edge watches as they perform in the band's first concert of their new world tour in Vancouver

MusicThey're running their own restaurants

Voices
The main entrance to the BBC headquarters in London
TV & Radio
Have you tried new the Independent Digital Edition apps?
Arts and Entertainment

ebooksNow available in paperback
Arts and Entertainment

ebooks
Latest stories from i100
Have you tried new the Independent Digital Edition apps?
SPONSORED FEATURES

ES Rentals

    Independent Dating
    and  

    By clicking 'Search' you
    are agreeing to our
    Terms of Use.

    Solved after 200 years: the mysterious deaths of 3,000 soldiers from Napoleon's army

    Solved after 200 years

    The mysterious deaths of 3,000 soldiers from Napoleon's army
    Every regional power has betrayed the Kurds so Turkish bombing is no surprise

    Robert Fisk on the Turkey conflict

    Every regional power has betrayed the Kurds so Turkish bombing is no surprise
    Investigation into wreck of unidentified submarine found off the coast of Sweden

    Sunken sub

    Investigation underway into wreck of an unidentified submarine found off the coast of Sweden
    Instagram and Facebook have 'totally changed' the way people buy clothes

    Age of the selfie

    Instagram and Facebook have 'totally changed' the way people buy clothes
    Not so square: How BBC's Bloomsbury saga is sexing up the period drama

    Not so square

    How Virginia Woolf saga is sexing up the BBC period drama
    Rio Olympics 2016: The seven teenagers still carrying a torch for our Games hopes

    Still carrying the torch

    The seven teenagers given our Olympic hopes
    The West likes to think that 'civilisation' will defeat Isis, but history suggests otherwise

    The West likes to think that 'civilisation' will defeat Isis...

    ...but history suggests otherwise
    The bald truth: How one author's thinning hair made him a Wayne Rooney sympathiser

    The bald truth

    How thinning hair made me a Wayne Rooney sympathiser
    Froome wins second Tour de France after triumphant ride into Paris with Team Sky

    Tour de France 2015

    Froome rides into Paris to win historic second Tour
    Fifteen years ago, Concorde crashed, and a dream died. Today, the desire to travel faster than the speed of sound is growing once again

    A new beginning for supersonic flight?

    Concorde's successors are in the works 15 years on from the Paris crash
    I would never quit Labour, says Liz Kendall

    I would never quit party, says Liz Kendall

    Latest on the Labour leadership contest
    Froome seals second Tour de France victory

    Never mind Pinot, it’s bubbly for Froome

    Second Tour de France victory all but sealed
    Oh really? How the 'lowest form of wit' makes people brighter and more creative

    The uses of sarcasm

    'Lowest form of wit' actually makes people brighter and more creative
    A magazine editor with no vanity, and lots of flair

    No vanity, but lots of flair

    A tribute to the magazine editor Ingrid Sischy
    Foraging: How the British rediscovered their taste for chasing after wild food

    In praise of foraging

    How the British rediscovered their taste for wild food