Books: Swamp fever

AMERICAN PASTORAL by Philip Roth Cape pounds 15.99

You want to know what women are? Let's consult the man baldly invoked by a Philip Roth character as: "Most famous author in history": ""Down from the waist they are centaurs, / Though women all above: / But to the girdle do the gods inherit, / Beneath is all the fiends': there's hell, there's darkness,/ There is the sulphurous pit, burning, scalding, stench, consumption ... "

This passage from Lear's "every inch a king" speech (Act IV, scene vi) is surely the locus classicus of male fear of female sexual power. At this point, overwhelmed by his own nightmare imagery, the old, mad king has to break off, crying out for "an ounce of civet ... to sweeten my imagination".

The apothecary to whom Lear's request for that soothing essence is addressed is, of course, part of his delusion at this part of the play. Were he not mad, there would be civet aplenty and all the threat and the pain would be suppressed, the "Stench" covered up by fragrance.

Covering-up is an activity to which Seymour "Swede" Levov, the hero (for once, an apposite description) of American Pastoral, devotes much of his considerable energy. It seems - for a second-generation Jew, at least - to go with the pursuit of the American paradise, a pursuit conducted in the face of what Roth describes as "the counterpastoral ... the indigenous American berserk".

"The Swede", a boyhood athlete of such strength and bearing as to carry the dreams of others with unburdened ease, develops into a man from whom "all that rose to the surface was more surface". A man, dependable, large and muscular, who sweeps up his beauty-queen wife and bright, adoring daughter into the safety of his strong, protective arms. A man by the sweat of whose brow his family is enabled to live in a huge, 18th-century stone house in the country. A man whose dexterity and devotion in relation to the family business of glove-making is conveyed in meticulous, authentic detail. A man who, like Shakespeare's tragic monarch, is helplessly undone by the mysterious forces that are not masculine.

Rarely can a gallery of female characters, in a novel as substantial as this one, have been imbued with such dark forcefulness. The Swede's wife overturns all his assumptions. Her betrayal of him with a man she affects to despise is a matter of ideology as much as it is of morality. His own mistress - for a brief, guilt-ridden interlude - is a woman of "nonsensical calm - ridiculous self-control". A third woman, a fat, loud- mouthed academic, is a crude bludgeon, a "strident Yenta". Another is "a haggard old woman at fifty-four, an undernourished drunk hiding the bulge of a drunk's belly beneath her shapeless sack dresses". Even this creature, sad as she is, has a desperation that is ultimately manipulative and, indeed, violent.

And then there is Rita Cohen. The tiny, well- brought-up Jewish kid turned revolutionary. A symbol of the destruction of everything - Jewishness, family, fatherhood, sport, craft and industry - from which the Swede assumes his identity. A sneering, posturing, taunting embodiment of the fevered imagination of a shattered, Shakespearean king. "It's a jungle down there," she says, pointing "beneath the girdle" in a sudden, shocking gesture. "Step right up and take a whiff - The swamp. It sucks you in. Smell it, Swede."

Not only does Swede Levov suffer, like Lear, "violent harms" to his spirit through the feminine will, he also endures the hurt most acutely in the serpent-tooth turning of the thankless daughter. For it is the actions of Swede's daughter, Merry, that are the real destroyers. The pampered, sweet child grows up a bomb-throwing protester against the Vietnam war, a slogan-fed rejecter of all the steady decencies the Swede has tried to inculcate; has himself so effortlessly and proudly upheld.

Most parents, it has always seemed to me, carry somewhere in the back of the skull a screen upon which the worst kind of horror movie is perpetually playing. It is a vivid sequence of all the pain and misery that can befall each of one's children: abduction, rape, fatal or chronically disabling disease, abandonment, loss of mind or memory, a road accident or suicide - there is no shortage of plot. But most of us, most of the time, are able to keep the door shut on this lurid little cinema. In this book, Philip Roth holds the door resolutely open. And, as Merry Levov's initial violent act proves to be but the trailer for an epic sequence of despair, he holds his gaze - if not the Swede's - in characteristically unflinching fashion.

After the certainties of a youth in which the Swede - gifted with a complexion and hair-colouring whose lightness matched his touch at the sports at which he excelled - evoked universal adoration in his exclusively Jewish neighbourhood, in manhood nothing and nobody are what they appear. And to negotiate all this shifting sand, this alter egoism, Roth resurrects his own notorious and celebrated alter ego of several notable novels, Nathan Zuckerman. So disdainful of surface reality is Roth/Zuckerman that this character we thought dead and buried in The Counterlife is called upon to be the Swede's chronicler.

However, Zuckerman is not enjoying the fullest flush of living. Ageing, childless and alone, he is the incontinent victim of an unsettled mind and a rebellious prostate. But he outlives the Swede, and he articulates the Swede's sense of loss, of confusion, of baffled protest at the storm that breaks around his head.

Zuckerman's is the voice that sets it in the context of the Jewish father - in this case, Lou Levov, "one of those slum-reared Jewish fathers whose rough-hewn, undereducated perspective goaded a whole generation of striving, college-educated Jewish sons". In other contexts, too: the randomness of modern life; the culture of psychoanalysis.

In the past, Roth's increasingly experimental presentation of his alter ego threatened to take his work right off the map. Psychoanalysis seemed to take so strong a hold that one worried that, as valid as reading between the lines may be, there might eventually be no lines to read between. But this is a fine restoration job. Although Zuckerman claims to have "come down with my own strain of the Swede's disorder: the inability to draw conclusions about anything but exteriors", he is not to be believed for a moment. The Swede's character, in all its perplexedness, is drawn out in cumulative detail by Roth's reintroduction of a now sixtysomething, Jewish American contemporary of both himself and Seymour "The Swede" Levov.

While the book is, almost from beginning to end, an open wound, it is a rigorously realised work of profundity and colour, marked by passages of searing beauty. It is even something of an artistic mission statement for which, perhaps, it needed Zuckerman, as much as it needed him to bring alive the magnificent character of the Swede.

"The fact remains that getting people right is not what living is all about anyway. It's getting them wrong that is living, getting them wrong and wrong and wrong and then, on careful consideration, getting them wrong again. That's how we know we're alive: we're wrong. Maybe the best thing would be to forget being right or wrong about people and just go along for the ride. But if you can do that - well, lucky you."

Arts and Entertainment
Reawakening: can Jon Hamm’s Don Draper find enlightenment in the final ‘Mad Men’?
tv reviewNot quite, but it's an enlightening finale for Don Draper spoiler alert
Arts and Entertainment
Breakfast Show’s Nick Grimshaw

Have you tried new the Independent Digital Edition apps?
Arts and Entertainment

ebooksNow available in paperback
Arts and Entertainment

Arts and Entertainment

Arts and Entertainment
'Youth' cast members Paul Dano, Jane Fonda, Harvey Keitel, Rachel Weisz, and Michael Caine pose for photographers at Cannes Film Festival
Arts and Entertainment
Adam West as Batman and Burt Ward and Robin in the 1960s Batman TV show

Arts and Entertainment
I am flute: Azeem Ward and his now-famous instrument
Arts and Entertainment
A glass act: Dr Chris van Tulleken (left) and twin Xand get set for their drinking challenge
TV review
Arts and Entertainment
MIA perform at Lovebox 2014 in London Fields, Hackney

Arts and Entertainment
Finnish punk band PKN hope to enter Eurovision 2015 and raise awareness for Down's Syndrome

Arts and Entertainment
William Shakespeare on the cover of John Gerard's The Herball or Generall Historie of Plantes

Arts and Entertainment

Game of Thrones review
Arts and Entertainment
Grayson Perry dedicates his Essex home to Julie

Potter's attempt to create an Essex Taj Mahal was a lovely treat

Arts and Entertainment
A scene from the original Swedish version of the sci-fi TV drama ‘Real Humans’
Arts and Entertainment
Hugh Keays-Byrne plays Immortan Joe, the terrifying gang leader, in the new film
filmActor who played Toecutter returns - but as a different villain in reboot
Arts and Entertainment
Charlize Theron as Imperator Furiosa in Mad Max: Fury Road
Arts and Entertainment
Jessica Hynes in W1A
tvReview: Perhaps the creators of W1A should lay off the copy and paste function spoiler alert
Arts and Entertainment
Power play: Mitsuko Uchida in concert

Arts and Entertainment
Dangerous liaisons: Dominic West, Jake Richard Siciliano, Maura Tierney and Leya Catlett in ‘The Affair’ – a contradictory drama but one which is sure to reel the viewers in
TV review
Arts and Entertainment
Richard Herring, pictured performing at the Edinburgh Fringe Festival two years ago
Arts and Entertainment
Music freak: Max Runham in the funfair band
Arts and Entertainment
film 'I felt under-used by Hollywood'
Latest stories from i100
Have you tried new the Independent Digital Edition apps?

ES Rentals

    Independent Dating

    By clicking 'Search' you
    are agreeing to our
    Terms of Use.

    Sun, sex and an anthropological study: One British academic's summer of hell in Magaluf

    Sun, sex and an anthropological study

    One academic’s summer of hell in Magaluf
    From Shakespeare to Rising Damp... to Vicious

    Frances de la Tour's 50-year triumph

    'Rising Damp' brought De la Tour such recognition that she could be forgiven if she'd never been able to move on. But at 70, she continues to flourish - and to beguile
    'That Whitsun, I was late getting away...'

    Ian McMillan on the Whitsun Weddings

    This weekend is Whitsun, and while the festival may no longer resonate, Larkin's best-loved poem, lives on - along with the train journey at the heart of it
    Kathryn Williams explores the works and influences of Sylvia Plath in a new light

    Songs from the bell jar

    Kathryn Williams explores the works and influences of Sylvia Plath
    How one man's day in high heels showed him that Cannes must change its 'no flats' policy

    One man's day in high heels

    ...showed him that Cannes must change its 'flats' policy
    Is a quiet crusade to reform executive pay bearing fruit?

    Is a quiet crusade to reform executive pay bearing fruit?

    Dominic Rossi of Fidelity says his pressure on business to control rewards is working. But why aren’t other fund managers helping?
    The King David Hotel gives precious work to Palestinians - unless peace talks are on

    King David Hotel: Palestinians not included

    The King David is special to Jerusalem. Nick Kochan checked in and discovered it has some special arrangements, too
    More people moving from Australia to New Zealand than in the other direction for first time in 24 years

    End of the Aussie brain drain

    More people moving from Australia to New Zealand than in the other direction for first time in 24 years
    Meditation is touted as a cure for mental instability but can it actually be bad for you?

    Can meditation be bad for you?

    Researching a mass murder, Dr Miguel Farias discovered that, far from bringing inner peace, meditation can leave devotees in pieces
    Eurovision 2015: Australians will be cheering on their first-ever entrant this Saturday

    Australia's first-ever Eurovision entrant

    Australia, a nation of kitsch-worshippers, has always loved the Eurovision Song Contest. Maggie Alderson says it'll fit in fine
    Letterman's final Late Show: Laughter, but no tears, as David takes his bow after 33 years

    Laughter, but no tears, as Letterman takes his bow after 33 years

    Veteran talkshow host steps down to plaudits from four presidents
    Ivor Novello Awards 2015: Hozier wins with anti-Catholic song 'Take Me To Church' as John Whittingdale leads praise for Black Sabbath

    Hozier's 'blasphemous' song takes Novello award

    Singer joins Ed Sheeran and Clean Bandit in celebration of the best in British and Irish music
    Tequila gold rush: The spirit has gone from a cheap shot to a multi-billion pound product

    Join the tequila gold rush

    The spirit has gone from a cheap shot to a multi-billion pound product
    12 best statement wallpapers

    12 best statement wallpapers

    Make an impact and transform a room with a conversation-starting pattern
    Paul Scholes column: Does David De Gea really want to leave Manchester United to fight it out for the No 1 spot at Real Madrid?

    Paul Scholes column

    Does David De Gea really want to leave Manchester United to fight it out for the No 1 spot at Real Madrid?