Allen Lane, £20 or order at a discount from The Independent Bookshop

Book review: Exodus: Immigration and Multiculturalism in the 21st Century, By Paul Collier

Kenan Malik contests a well-meaning but flawed call for curbs on global movement

Migration, Paul Collier observes, "affects many groups, but only one has the practical power to control it: the indigenous population of host societies". So, he asks, "Should that group act in its self-interest, or balance the interests of all groups?" That is the question is at the heart of Collier's new book.

Get this book at the discounted price of £16 from The Independent Bookshop or call 0843 0600 030

A developmental economist, Collier has long been concerned with questions of poverty and justice, particularly in Africa. Truly to understand immigration, he argues, we have to unpack its impact on the three key groups - migrants themselves, the host community, and those left behind in the countries of origin. The real question, he suggests, is not whether immigration is good or bad, but how much of it brings benefits to each of these groups.

Exodus is gracefully written and elegantly argued. But despite its wealth of statistical evidence, there is often a chasm between that evidence and Collier's more contentious arguments. Many of its solutions are morally questionable.

Consider, for instance, Collier's analysis of the impact of migration of those left behind, and of what should be done about it. Two main factors are important here: the remittances sent home by those who migrate, which are beneficial, and the brain drain caused by emigration, which is detrimental. For most poor countries, Collier suggests, the impact of the brain drain outweighs the benefits of remittances. Poor countries would therefore "benefit from emigration controls" to prevent their best people from leaving but in practice cannot "control either the emigration rate or the rate of return", and so "are dependent upon controls set by governments of host countries".

For Collier there is a moral case for rich countries to impose immigration controls as a way of helping the poor. Suppose, however, that poor countries were able to prevent their citizens from leaving. Would it be moral for them to do so? I doubt that many people would say "Yes". It would, after all, be asking such countries to be like North Korea. But if it is immoral for poor countries to prevent citizens from leaving, why is it moral for rich countries to do that job for them? Especially when to do so requires coercion and brutality.

For years, the EU paid huge sums to Colonel Gaddafi for his security services to ensure that immigrants did not cross the Mediterranean. Today, Morocco plays much the same role. From the human costs of the US drive against illegal Mexican migrants to the deployment of the Australian navy in its "stop the boats" campaign against refugees, there is little moral about the enforcement of controls. I am not suggesting that there may not be a moral case for immigration controls. But the claim that such controls are a means by which the rich can help the poor is moral hogwash.

Collier's discussion of the impact of immigration on host countries is equally problematic. He accepts that the economic fears are largely misplaced. But, he insists, too much diversity creates social problems, in particular by destroying "mutual regard", the willingness to co-operate and redistribute resources. He draws upon the work of the American sociologist Robert Putnam who has shown that the more diverse a community, the less socially engaged are its members – they vote less, give less to charity, have fewer friends.

Putnam's work has long been seized upon by critics of immigration to suggest that diversity undermines the social fabric. The implications of the data are, however, far from clear. A key problem is that the study offers only a snapshot of attitudes at one moment. Diversity, though, is not a static phenomenon but changes over time, as does our political response to it. Over the past few decades, we have seen the demise of movements for social change, the rise of identity politics, the atomisation of society, a loss of belief in universal values, all of which has led to civic disengagement and a greater sense of anomie. The real problem, then, may not be diversity as such but the political context in which we think about it.

Collier insists on viewing political shifts almost entirely through the lens of diversity. He suggests that recent "policies of reduced taxation and increased reliance on the market" have been shaped by "the pronounced increase in cultural diversity brought about by immigration". Evidence? None. He suggests that the 2011 London riots reflect "a decline in social capital within the indigenous population" caused by immigration having led to "indigenous people" losing trust in one another. Evidence? None.

Collier's policy prescriptions are often as questionable as his analysis. A key argument in Exodus is that the levels both of migration and of problems created by it are linked to the size of diasporas. If there are already large populations of Jamaicans or Bangladeshis in a country, then it is easier for more Jamaicans or Bangladeshis to arrive. At the same time, a sizeable diaspora slows down integration because it is easier to live in enclaves. A vicious cycle, therefore, develops: a large diaspora draws in more fellow-immigrants, hinders integration, makes the diaspora larger, which draws in more fellow-immigrants.

It is a contentious argument, not least because it ignores the policy prescriptions that shape relationships between social groups. Collier's solution is equally contentious: he wants to peg immigration from any group to the size of the existing diaspora, a policy that appears neither practical nor moral.

Collier thinks that immigrants' right to bring in relatives should be cut, partly because it "reduces the incentive to make remittances" (another disingenuous "we are only doing it for your benefit" claim) and partly because indigenous workers don't have the same right (no, their families are mostly here). Any refugee who flees a war, Collier insists, should be sent back the moment the conflict ends. And so on.

Collier is adamant that he is not opposed to immigration, only to its uncontrolled increase. His book has been welcomed as a "humane" intervention in an often toxic debate. All of which probably tells us more about the character of the debate than it does about the merits of Collier's arguments.

Kenan Malik's 'Multiculturalism and Its Discontents' is published by Seagull Books

PROMOTED VIDEO
Arts and Entertainment
From left to right: Ed Stoppard as Brian Epstein, Sheridan Smith as Cilla Black and Elliott Cowan as George Martin in 'Cilla'

TV
Arts and Entertainment
Thomas Pynchon in 1955, left, and Reese Witherspoon and Joaquin Phoenix in Paul Thomas Anderson's adaptation of his novel, Inherent Vice

film
Have you tried new the Independent Digital Edition apps?
Arts and Entertainment

TV
Arts and Entertainment
Singer Nicole Scherzinger will join the cast of Cats

theatre
Arts and Entertainment
Fans were left surprised by the death on Sunday night's season 26 premiere

TV
Arts and Entertainment
Emma Watson has become the latest target of the 4Chan nude hacking scandal

film
Arts and Entertainment
Lady Mary goes hunting with suitor Lord Gillingham

TV
Arts and Entertainment
Nick Dunne, played by Ben Affleck, finds himself at the centre of a media storm when his wife is reported missing and assumed dead

film
Arts and Entertainment
Lindsay Lohan made her West End debut earlier this week in 'Speed-the-Plow'

theatre
Arts and Entertainment
Artist Nathan Sawaya stands with his sculpture 'Yellow' at the Art of Brick Exhibition

art
Arts and Entertainment
'Strictly Come Dancing' attracted 6.53 million viewers on Friday
tv
Arts and Entertainment
David Tennant plays Detective Emmett Carver in the US version on Broadchurch

tv
Arts and Entertainment
The Doctor goes undercover at Coal Hill School in 'The Caretaker'
tv
Arts and Entertainment
Ni , Rock of Rah, Vanuatu: The Ni live on one of the smallest islands of Vanuatu; Nelson flew five hours from Sydney to capture the 'isolation forged by their remoteness'
photographyJimmy Nelson travelled the world to photograph 35 threatened tribes in an unashamedly glamorous style
Arts and Entertainment
David Byrne
musicDavid Byrne describes how the notorious First Lady's high life dazzled him out of a career low
Arts and Entertainment
Sergeant pfeffer: Beatles in 1963
booksA song-by-song survey of the Beatles’ lyrics
Arts and Entertainment
music'I didn't even know who I was'
Arts and Entertainment
Cheryl was left in a conundrum with too much talent and too few seats during the six-chair challenge stage
tvReview: It was tension central at boot camp as the ex-Girls Aloud singer whittled down the hopefuls
Arts and Entertainment
Kalen Hollomon's Anna Wintour collage

art
Arts and Entertainment

TV Grace Dent on TV
Arts and Entertainment

Music
Arts and Entertainment
Sheridan Smith as Cilla Black

music
Latest stories from i100
Have you tried new the Independent Digital Edition apps?

ES Rentals

    Independent Dating
    and  

    By clicking 'Search' you
    are agreeing to our
    Terms of Use.

    Ebola outbreak: The children orphaned by the virus – then rejected by surviving relatives over fear of infection

    The children orphaned by Ebola...

    ... then rejected by surviving relatives over fear of infection
    Pride: Are censors pandering to homophobia?

    Are censors pandering to homophobia?

    US film censors have ruled 'Pride' unfit for under-16s, though it contains no sex or violence
    The magic of roundabouts

    Lords of the rings

    Just who are the Roundabout Appreciation Society?
    Why do we like making lists?

    Notes to self: Why do we like making lists?

    Well it was good enough for Ancient Egyptians and Picasso...
    Hong Kong protests: A good time to open a new restaurant?

    A good time to open a new restaurant in Hong Kong?

    As pro-democracy demonstrators hold firm, chef Rowley Leigh, who's in the city to open a new restaurant, says you couldn't hope to meet a nicer bunch
    Paris Fashion Week: Karl Lagerfeld leads a feminist riot on 'Boulevard Chanel'

    Paris Fashion Week

    Lagerfeld leads a feminist riot on 'Boulevard Chanel'
    Bruce Chatwin's Wales: One of the finest one-day walks in Britain

    Simon Calder discovers Bruce Chatwin's Wales

    One of the finest one-day walks you could hope for - in Britain
    10 best children's nightwear

    10 best children's nightwear

    Make sure the kids stay cosy on cooler autumn nights in this selection of pjs, onesies and nighties
    Manchester City vs Roma: Five things we learnt from City’s draw at the Etihad

    Manchester City vs Roma

    Five things we learnt from City’s Champions League draw at the Etihad
    Martin Hardy: Mike Ashley must act now and end the Alan Pardew reign

    Trouble on the Tyne

    Ashley must act now and end Pardew's reign at Newcastle, says Martin Hardy
    Isis is an hour from Baghdad, the Iraq army has little chance against it, and air strikes won't help

    Isis an hour away from Baghdad -

    and with no sign of Iraq army being able to make a successful counter-attack
    Turner Prize 2014 is frustratingly timid

    Turner Prize 2014 is frustratingly timid

    The exhibition nods to rich and potentially brilliant ideas, but steps back
    Last chance to see: Half the world’s animals have disappeared over the last 40 years

    Last chance to see...

    The Earth’s animal wildlife population has halved in 40 years
    So here's why teenagers are always grumpy - and it's not what you think

    Truth behind teens' grumpiness

    Early school hours mess with their biological clocks
    Why can no one stop hackers putting celebrities' private photos online?

    Hacked photos: the third wave

    Why can no one stop hackers putting celebrities' private photos online?