How can we measure suffering over animal testing?

The debate over animal research would be better served with more information, says Gareth Chadwick

A A A

Animal testing and research has long been a controversial, much-debated subject. Public opinion is widely varied, often depending on the nature of the research in question, which varies enormously in type, purpose and outcome.

Animals are used worldwide to test products ranging from shampoos (although not in the UK, where the testing of cosmetics on animals is illegal) to pioneering pharmaceuticals that may help in the treatment of diseases such as cancer and HIV.

Indeed, supporters argue that vaccines for diseases such as rabies, polio and TB could not have been developed without animal testing. Launching a report by the Academy of Medical Sciences into the use of animals in research in December 2006, Jo Tanner, chief executive of the Coalition for Medical Progress, said that "the carefully regulated use of non-human primates in medical research has led to the development of many of the treatments we currently take for granted. And if we are to find a cure for Alzheimer's disease or vaccines against Malaria and HIV, we will need to carry out research using a small number of primates."

At the same time, Sir David Weatherall, chair of the group that undertook the 18-month study, said: "there is a scientific case for careful, meticulously regulated non-human primate research, at least for the foreseeable future."

However the RSPCA greeted the findings with alarm. Supporting a landmark report by the Nuffield Council on Bioethics, which stated that research without causing harm to animals "must be the ultimate goal", RSPCA senior scientist Dr Penny Hawkins said: "The RSPCA expected the Weatherall Committee to challenge the necessity and justification for primate use in an open-minded and innovative way, but in our view it has not done that. All it has done is defend the status quo, which is just not good enough."

And in September this year, European MPs voted overwhelmingly for the Commission to phase out the use of primates.

So despite the findings of the Weatherall report, there is growing public concern surrounding the ethical and moral acceptability of all testing on animals, medical or otherwise.

A 1999 MORI opinion poll conducted for New Scientist magazine is still one of the most comprehensive, unbiased studies into public attitudes towards the subject to date. The results revealed that 64 per cent of those questioned did not want scientists to be allowed to conduct tests on live animals.

Investigations into the safety of new medicines in particular can cause significant pain and suffering, and the vast majority of all animals used for research are destroyed as part of the experiment or when no longer required.

Mice, rats and other rodents are the most commonly used animals for research, accounting for 85 per cent. Dogs, cats, horses and primates are subject to special protection and account for less than 1 per cent of laboratory animals collectively.

The use of primates is a particularly contentious issue, and the relatively small percentage used in research nonetheless amounts to a considerable number. Every year in the UK, around 3,000 non-human primates (predominantly marmosets and macaques) are used for research and testing. For the EU as a whole, the figure stands at approximately 10,000.

Non-human primate research primarily looks at the development and testing of medicines and vaccines. Primates are also used for biological investigations, such as research into behaviour and brain function.

There are regulations in place to minimise the suffering of animals used in research, which state that animal experiments must not be conducted if a realistic alternative is available. Moreover, animal testing must be licensed by the Home Office, which awards a "severity level" that dictates the maximum level of suffering permitted, based on the nature of the procedure.

However, there is controversy surrounding this system. Home Office statistics on the use of animals for testing apply solely to estimates of procedural severity levels provided before the investigation has taken place. Information on the actual level of suffering during the investigation is not reported or published. It is due to this lack of information that out of five research animal indicators in the RSPCA report, three have insufficient data to assess trends. Without this information, it is difficult to gauge how much animals are suffering and for what purpose, and whether the situation is improving.

News
More than 90 years of car history are coming to an end with the abolition of the paper car-tax disc
newsThis and other facts you never knew about the paper circle - completely obsolete today
News
people'I’d rather have Fred and Rose West quote my characters on childcare'
Life and Style
The new Windows 10 Start Menu
tech
Arts and Entertainment
There has been a boom in ticket sales for female comics, according to an industry survey
comedyFirst national survey reveals Britain’s comedic tastes
PROMOTED VIDEO
Have you tried new the Independent Digital Edition apps?
Travel
Bruce Chatwin's novel 'On the Black Hill' was set at The Vision Farm
travelOne of the finest one-day walks you could hope for - in Britain
Sport
footballManchester City 1 Roma 1: Result leaves Premier League champions in danger of not progressing
Arts and Entertainment
Gay and OK: a scene from 'Pride'
filmsUS film censors have ruled 'Pride' unfit for under-16s, though it contains no sex or violence
News
i100
Life and Style
Magic roundabouts: the gyratory system that has excited enthusiasts in Swindon
motoringJust who are the Roundabout Appreciation Society?
Arts and Entertainment
Hilary North's 'How My Life Has Changed', 2001
booksWell it was good enough for Ancient Egyptians and Picasso...
Latest stories from i100
Have you tried new the Independent Digital Edition apps?
iJobs Job Widget
iJobs General

Commercial Litigation NQ+

Very Competitive Salary: Austen Lloyd: NORTH HAMPSHIRE NQ to MID LEVEL - An e...

MANCHESTER - SENIOR COMMERCIAL LITIGATION -

Highly Attractive Pakage: Austen Lloyd: MANCHESTER - A highly attractive oppor...

Senior Marketing Manager - Central London - £50,000

£40000 - £50000 per annum: Ashdown Group: Marketing Manager (Campaigns, Offlin...

Head of Marketing - Acquisition & Direct Reponse Marketing

£90000 - £135000 per annum: Ashdown Group: Head of Marketing (B2C, Acquisition...

Day In a Page

Ebola outbreak: The children orphaned by the virus – then rejected by surviving relatives over fear of infection

The children orphaned by Ebola...

... then rejected by surviving relatives over fear of infection
Pride: Are censors pandering to homophobia?

Are censors pandering to homophobia?

US film censors have ruled 'Pride' unfit for under-16s, though it contains no sex or violence
The magic of roundabouts

Lords of the rings

Just who are the Roundabout Appreciation Society?
Why do we like making lists?

Notes to self: Why do we like making lists?

Well it was good enough for Ancient Egyptians and Picasso...
Hong Kong protests: A good time to open a new restaurant?

A good time to open a new restaurant in Hong Kong?

As pro-democracy demonstrators hold firm, chef Rowley Leigh, who's in the city to open a new restaurant, says you couldn't hope to meet a nicer bunch
Paris Fashion Week: Karl Lagerfeld leads a feminist riot on 'Boulevard Chanel'

Paris Fashion Week

Lagerfeld leads a feminist riot on 'Boulevard Chanel'
Bruce Chatwin's Wales: One of the finest one-day walks in Britain

Simon Calder discovers Bruce Chatwin's Wales

One of the finest one-day walks you could hope for - in Britain
10 best children's nightwear

10 best children's nightwear

Make sure the kids stay cosy on cooler autumn nights in this selection of pjs, onesies and nighties
Manchester City vs Roma: Five things we learnt from City’s draw at the Etihad

Manchester City vs Roma

Five things we learnt from City’s Champions League draw at the Etihad
Martin Hardy: Mike Ashley must act now and end the Alan Pardew reign

Trouble on the Tyne

Ashley must act now and end Pardew's reign at Newcastle, says Martin Hardy
Isis is an hour from Baghdad, the Iraq army has little chance against it, and air strikes won't help

Isis an hour away from Baghdad -

and with no sign of Iraq army being able to make a successful counter-attack
Turner Prize 2014 is frustratingly timid

Turner Prize 2014 is frustratingly timid

The exhibition nods to rich and potentially brilliant ideas, but steps back
Last chance to see: Half the world’s animals have disappeared over the last 40 years

Last chance to see...

The Earth’s animal wildlife population has halved in 40 years
So here's why teenagers are always grumpy - and it's not what you think

Truth behind teens' grumpiness

Early school hours mess with their biological clocks
Why can no one stop hackers putting celebrities' private photos online?

Hacked photos: the third wave

Why can no one stop hackers putting celebrities' private photos online?