Polygonia c-album
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The Independent Online

An orange and brown butterfly with ragged edges to the wings, which, here again, adds to the dead-leaf effect when the wings are closed.

A white mark on the undersides resembles a comma. Following a decline in the mid-20th century, the comma has made a remarkable comeback and has spread north as far as Scotland.

Larval foodplants: Nettles, hops, elms.

Where seen: open woodland and woodland edges. Seen more in gardens in the autumn. Found over most of England and Wales, now into southern Scotland.

Current conservation status: Increase of 253 per cent 1976–2008. Has spread north by over 200km in last 20 years (10km per year) – probably in response to climate change. First records in Ireland in last few years.