98for98 The century in photographs: today 1933

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Indy Lifestyle Online
These young boys carrying racks of spaghetti to be hung out to dry in Italy were barely affected by Mussolini's authoritarianism, as rural workers involved in industries such as pasta making were deemed less important than those involved in modern industries like electricity, automobiles and war materials. However they had little opportunity to voice the issue of unfair treatment. By 1933, the workers' strikes and the peasants' rush to reclaim land promised to them after the war was under control thanks to the philosophy of the corporate state, which placed all industry and trade in a hierarchical framework. Workers suffered under the prohibition of strikes and the appointment of trade union officials from above, and businessmen who at first welcomed this found that the corporate state also meant bureaucracy, corruption and high taxes for themselves.

Although Mussolini wanted to represent a modern state, he played upon the Roman origins of Italy, which means "land of oxen" or "grazen land". He imbued his rhetoric with aggression, hoping to re-establish Italy as a player on the world stage as it had been under the Roman Empire. For centuries, Italy was considered to be an economically backwards country, with trade mostly from the land, and up until unification in 1860, hindered by the fact that different languages were spoken in several states. It was hard to bring a sense of unity to people who, until relatively recently, had little more than a love of pasta in common.

In January Hitler became Chancellor of Germany, under the partial amnesia of President von Hindenberg who had said only last November that a Hitler cabinet would be "bound to develop into a party dictatorship". Germany looked like it was about to enter a civil war, and Hitler's winning tactic was to crush all political opposition. By March, as Hitler's troops shouted "Full powers, or else...", Hitler was given the power to rule by decree. The vote was won through terror: the actions of the Storm Troopers, the boycott of Jewish businesses, systematic removal of Jewish liberty and the burning of books considered "un-German" meant that, by the end of the year, 2,154 out of 2,242 of the inmates in the Dachau concentration camp voted for the regime which had imprisoned them.

Photo 98 is a series of high profile national events and exhibitions: for information events and exhibitions; call 01484 559888 or refer to www.photo.98.com

Current Exhibitions: The New Ukraine. Yorkshire is home to the largest expatriate community of Ukranians. Tim Smith's photographs alongside historical images and personal testimonies explore the Ukranian culture and people. At The Piece Hall Art Gallery, The Piece Hall, Halifax HX1 (01422 358087).