End lines: The map - World in motion

Why is Chinese food so good in Peru? And how did Uruguay get so skilful at football? David Goldblatt charts some strange migrations. Illustration by Joe Magee

For a few petrodollars more Nearly a quarter of all imports to Bangladesh are funded by foreign currency remittances from migrant communities. Alongside the migrations to the UK, Bangladesh's most important offshore earners are in the Middle East. With the oil-price hike of 1974, the sparsely populated but incredibly wealthy micro-states and sheikhdoms of the Arabian peninsula acquired an appetite for migrant unskilled labour - particularly of Muslim origin. Overwhelmingly from the desperately poor region of Chittagong, hundreds of thousands of Bangladeshis have filled the lowest rungs of the Middle Eastern labour market.

From rice paddy to coffee field With the abolition of slavery in 1850, Brazilian coffee plantation owners found themselves short of ultra-cheap labour and so turned to the harsh system of "colono", a form of indentured labour. Desperately poor labourers were brought from Europe and Asia to work the plantations, paying off the huge debts incurred to fund their sea passage. In the early 20th century, as Japanese agriculture became modernised, landless peasants were shipped to Brazil. By 1936, 180,000 Japanese people had made the crossing. Among the poorest and most insular of Brazil's modern immigrants, the Brazillo-Japanese have steadily improved their economic standing, but with only 18 per cent marrying out they remain socially apart from the Brazilian mainstream.

La trata amirilla One of the earliest records of Chinese immigration in the Americas was a petition to the governor of Mexico City, written by the city's barbers in 1653, protesting against Chinese barbers undercutting their rates. In the mid-19th century, as slavery was abolished, the so- called la trata amirilla (the yellow trade) started up. Chinese peasants sold themselves into the debt of indentured labour to escape the grinding poverty of Qing China. By 1875 nearly a quarter of a million had made the crossing to Peru and Cuba. Over the 20th century this substantial and often persecuted minority has moved up the social scale and into the cities. Lima now boasts a barrio chino and Chinese cafes, or chifas, are present in every town.

Hard labour in paradise Between 1836 and 1916, driven by poverty at home and the Empire's insatiable demand for cheap labour, over a million Indians migrated to distant British colonial outposts and plantations in Natal, Mauritius, the Caribbean and Fiji in the South Pacific. Between 1879 and the First World War, the Australian Colonial Sugar Refining Company, which owned most of Fiji's fertile land, imported 70,000 indentured Indians into one of the harshest plantation regimes in the world. The Fijian Indian population equalled that of indigenous islanders, and the post-colonial history of the island has been marked by bitter conflict, coup and counter-coup between these ethnic groups.

Naples on the River Plate Why is it that a tiny Latin American nation - Uruguay - should have won the World Cup twice? A bit of migration history may be revealing. Uruguay began life as the desolate southern tip of the Portuguese Empire in Latin America. Its separation from Brazil and its emergence as an independent state was largely the result of British diplomacy seeking to put a buffer state between Brazil and Argentina in the 1820s. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, southern Italian migrants began to stream to Uruguay's capital Montevideo. Inland, Uruguay's soil was unproductive, so these migrants remained in the city where they formed the urban majority, and pursued the game which was to become a national obsession, just like back home.

Ancient and modern The largest Greek-speaking urban population outside of Athens and Thessaloniki is Melbourne. Greeks make up a significant part of Australia's 20th-century migrations and helped save the country's diet from the baleful impact of Anglo-Celtic dominance. Greeks began going down under in the early 20th century. Together with Italian immigrants they dominated the catering business. While never on the receiving end of racism as virulent as that which has been directed at Aboriginal Australians, the "anti-dago" riots of the Depression years saw Greek communities attacked and Greek- owned properties burnt.

Back to Mother Russia Since the 15th-century creation of the Moscovy Empire, Russians have been migrating from the core territories. In the 18th and 19th centuries they poured into the Steppes and Siberia, the Ukraine and the imperial offices of the Baltic. In the 20th century, Russian migration intensified: communist technocrats, bureaucrats and Red Army officers were implanted across Central Asia and the Caucuses. With the collapse of the Soviet Union, a reverse migration is gathering pace: local nationalisms and ancient discontents have made life uncomfortable for Russians in Central Asia and the Caucuses, while new language and citizenship policies are actively excluding them in the Baltic.

Land and freedom Liberia, or what is left of it, is a unique state. It was the first African Republic, founded in 1847. But unlike the European-dominated states of southern Africa, Liberia was settled by a black African-American elite. Freed slaves from North America made the return journey to the philanthropically established capital of Freetown. This urban immigrant core established dominance over the 95 per cent of the Liberian population who were indigenous Africans. Americo-Liberian dominance was shattered by popular riots and a military take-over in the Eighties which descended into bitter civil war and the displacement of Liberians and their war into Sierra Leone and the Ivory Coast.

Suggested Topics
Have you tried new the Independent Digital Edition apps?
Life and Style
ebookNow available in paperback
ebooks
ebookA delicious collection of 50 meaty main courses
Latest stories from i100
Have you tried new the Independent Digital Edition apps?
Independent Dating
and  

By clicking 'Search' you
are agreeing to our
Terms of Use.

SPONSORED FEATURES

ES Rentals

    iJobs Job Widget
    iJobs General

    Recruitment Genius: Senior Environmental Adviser - Maternity Cover

    £37040 - £43600 per annum: Recruitment Genius: The UK's export credit agency a...

    Recruitment Genius: CBM & Lubrication Technician

    £25000 - £27500 per annum: Recruitment Genius: This company provides a compreh...

    Recruitment Genius: Care Worker - Residential Emergency Service

    £16800 - £19500 per annum: Recruitment Genius: Would you like to join an organ...

    Recruitment Genius: Senior Landscaper

    £25000 - £28000 per annum: Recruitment Genius: In the last five years this com...

    Day In a Page

    The long walk west: they fled war in Syria, only to get held up in Hungary – now hundreds of refugees have set off on foot for Austria

    They fled war in Syria...

    ...only to get stuck and sidetracked in Hungary
    From The Prisoner to Mad Men, elaborate title sequences are one of the keys to a great TV series

    Title sequences: From The Prisoner to Mad Men

    Elaborate title sequences are one of the keys to a great TV series. But why does the art form have such a chequered history?
    Giorgio Armani Beauty's fabric-inspired foundations: Get back to basics this autumn

    Giorgio Armani Beauty's foundations

    Sumptuous fabrics meet luscious cosmetics for this elegant look
    From stowaways to Operation Stack: Life in a transcontinental lorry cab

    Life from the inside of a trucker's cab

    From stowaways to Operation Stack, it's a challenging time to be a trucker heading to and from the Continent
    Kelis interview: The songwriter and sauce-maker on cooking for Pharrell and crying over potatoes

    Kelis interview

    The singer and sauce-maker on cooking for Pharrell
    Refugee crisis: David Cameron lowered the flag for the dead king of Saudi Arabia - will he do the same honour for little Aylan Kurdi?

    Cameron lowered the flag for the dead king of Saudi Arabia...

    But will he do the same honour for little Aylan Kurdi, asks Robert Fisk
    Our leaders lack courage in this refugee crisis. We are shamed by our European neighbours

    Our leaders lack courage in this refugee crisis. We are shamed by our European neighbours

    Humanity must be at the heart of politics, says Jeremy Corbyn
    Joe Biden's 'tease tour': Could the US Vice-President be testing the water for a presidential run?

    Joe Biden's 'tease tour'

    Could the US Vice-President be testing the water for a presidential run?
    Britain's 24-hour culture: With the 'leisured society' a distant dream we're working longer and less regular hours than ever

    Britain's 24-hour culture

    With the 'leisured society' a distant dream we're working longer and less regular hours than ever
    Diplomacy board game: Treachery is the way to win - which makes it just like the real thing

    The addictive nature of Diplomacy

    Bullying, betrayal, aggression – it may be just a board game, but the family that plays Diplomacy may never look at each other in the same way again
    Lady Chatterley's Lover: Racy underwear for fans of DH Lawrence's equally racy tome

    Fashion: Ooh, Lady Chatterley!

    Take inspiration from DH Lawrence's racy tome with equally racy underwear
    8 best children's clocks

    Tick-tock: 8 best children's clocks

    Whether you’re teaching them to tell the time or putting the finishing touches to a nursery, there’s a ticker for that
    Charlie Austin: Queens Park Rangers striker says ‘If the move is not right, I’m not going’

    Charlie Austin: ‘If the move is not right, I’m not going’

    After hitting 18 goals in the Premier League last season, the QPR striker was the great non-deal of transfer deadline day. But he says he'd preferred another shot at promotion
    Isis profits from destruction of antiquities by selling relics to dealers - and then blowing up the buildings they come from to conceal the evidence of looting

    How Isis profits from destruction of antiquities

    Robert Fisk on the terrorist group's manipulation of the market to increase the price of artefacts
    Labour leadership: Andy Burnham urges Jeremy Corbyn voters to think again in last-minute plea

    'If we lose touch we’ll end up with two decades of the Tories'

    In an exclusive interview, Andy Burnham urges Jeremy Corbyn voters to think again in last-minute plea