Being bullied as a child could lead to health issues in adulthood, researchers have warned.
According to a study published in Psychological Science, a journal of the Association for Psychological Science, both being a bully and being bullied during childhood could lead to negative health, psychological and financial experiences as an adult.
The study tracked more than 300 men from first grade (aged five to seven years old) until their early 30s. They found that men who were bullies during childhood were more likely to smoke cigarettes, use marijuana, experience stressful circumstances and be aggressive and hostile more than 20 years later.
On the other hand, men who were bullied as children had more financial difficulties, felt more unfairly treated by others and were less optimistic about their future.
The most expensive schools in the world
The most expensive schools in the world
1/10 La Rosey, Switzerland
This prestigious Swiss boarding school is believed to be the most expensive in the world. Le Rosey hosts pupils from seven to 18 and has been co-educational since 1967. The school takes in pupils from more than 60 countries, but allows no more than 10 per cent of its students to come from any one country in order to prevent a single nationality dominating. The school has two campuses – winter is spent in Gstaad, where pupils can make use of the ski slopes after their morning lessons. Come spring, the whole school will uproot to the Chataeau du Rosey in the village of Rolle by Lake Geneva. Le Rosey also boats a 1,000 seat concert hall, equestrian centre and 38-foot yacht. Notable alumni: Shah of Iran, Prince Rainier of Monaco and King Farouk of Egypt. Sir Roger Moore and Elizabeth Taylor also send their children here, along with John Lennon’s son Sean and Winston Churchill’s grandson. Fees: approx. £86,657 pa
2/10 Aiglon College, Switzerland
With a view of Mont Blanc, this high altitude school lends itself to outdoor pursuits. The school caters for boys and girls aged nine to 18 and is modelled on the traditional British Boarding school. Unlike most schools, however, the whole school body comes together for 20 minutes of meditation on three mornings each week. Notable alumni: Actor Michel Gill, Princess Tatiana of Greece and Denmark, Sheherazade Goldsmith Fees: up to £80,810 per year (upper school boarding)
3/10 Collège Alpin International Beau Soleil
Founded in 1910, Beau Soleil is one of the oldest private boarding schools in Switzerland. It is positioned 1,350 metres above sea level on the Swiss Alps and hosts pupils from more than 40 different nationalities aged 11-18. The curriculum is taught in both French and English and focuses on outdoor sports, with a ski slope and ice skating rink on site. Notable alumni: Racing driver Jacques Villeneuve, Princess Marie of Denmark, Prince Guillaume, Hereditary Grand Duke of Luxembourg Fees: £79,528
Collège Alpin International Beau Soleil
4/10 Collège du Léman International School, Switzerland
Taking in children from as young as one year old, College du Leman teaches a bilingual programme of French and English up to age 18. The school campus stretches out across eight hectares and offers access to both Geneva city and the mountains. Pupils from more than 100 nationalities attend. Noteable alumni: Anna Ovcharova, Swiss, Russian figure skater Fees: £68,960 pa
5/10 Leysin American School, Switzerland
Another high-profile Swiss school, popular for its exclusive ski and snowboard facilities. LAS Students are allowed to spend Tuesday and Thursday afternoons on the mountain for sports. Despite its name, around 12 per cent of students are from the US. Notable alumni: According to Bloomberg, alumni include members of Saudi Arabia’s royal family, the Rockefellers and Vanderbilts. Fees: Approx £66,700 per year
Leysin American School
6/10 Institut auf dem Rosenberg
7/10 Think Global School
The world’s first “travelling high school” takes pupils to four different countries each year – allowing pupils to experience subjects out in the field. The school has one teacher for every three students and has a 100 per cent pass rate for the International Baccalaureate qualification. Notable alumni: The school is only seven years old, but will no doubt become a popular choice with the next generation of rock stars’ children. Fees: £63,980. Sliding-scale scholarships offered.
8/10 The American school in Switzerland (TASIS)
The first US boarding school to be set up in Europe, TASIS lies on the Dollina d’Oro in the Swiss mountains. Fine art is central to the school curriculum and TASIS hosts its own Spring Arts Festival which attracts a number of famous artists and musicians each year. Notable alumni: American mountain climber Francys Arsentiev, Performer Jeanie Cunningham and Italian-American film director Francesca Gregorini Fees: £63,561 pa
9/10 Brillantmont, Switzerland
A family-run, traditional Swiss school for 130 years, Brillantmont overlooks Lake Geneva and sits just a five-minute walk away from Lausanne. Brillantmont boasts that 100 per cent of its students continue their studies to higher education. Notable alumni: kept suspiciously on the down-low Fees: £52,010 - £59,680 pa
10/10 Hurtwood house, Surrey
Hurtwood house, surrey Several of the best UK boarding schools top their fees around this mark. Set in an Edwardian mansion with 200 acres of grounds, Hurtwood House is one of the most unique. The school hosts just 340 pupils and is known for its focus on creativity and the arts – a recent school production of Chicago cost £75,000 to stage, according to Tatler. Notable alumni: Emily Blunt, Jack Huston, Hans Zimmer Fees: £39,555 pa
Researchers suggested that as previous studies have shown stress, anger and hostility can lead to health risks like cardiovascular disease and high blood pressure both those who bully and those who were bullied are at higher risk of developing serious health conditions later in life.
“The childhood bullies were still aggressive as adults and victims of bullies were still feeling like they were treated unfairly as adults,” Karen A. Matthews, the lead researcher from the University of Pittsburgh, said. “Both groups had a lot of stress in their adult lives so the impact of childhood bullying lasts a long time.”
The long-term study began in 1987 and 1988 by observing around 500 boys in Pittsburgh. More than half of the boys in the original study were black and researchers noted the overall results were fairly similar for both black and white men.
The boys were regularly assessed and data was collected from children, parents and teachers on bullying behaviour when the boys were aged between 10 to 12 years old. Of the 500 original participants, 300 were later recruited to complete questionnaires on their stress levels, health history and socioeconomic status. Around 260 were tested for their health in labs. Many of the original participants could not take part later on because they were deceased or incarcerated, researchers noted.
The authors suggested that children who are at risk of either being bullied or becoming involved in bullying would benefit from early intervention so to yield long-term psychosocial and physical health benefits.Reuse content