A to Z of Health

Y is for yellow fever, an infectious disease caused by a virus transmitted by mosquitoes, today found only in Central America, parts of South America and Africa. In severe cases the skin of the sufferer becomes yellow from jaundice - hence the name.

The infection causes fever, headache, nausea and nose bleeds and a slow heart rate, but most sufferers recover within about three days. In more serious cases, there is severe headache and pain in the neck, back and legs and damage to the liver and kidneys can occur. About 10 per cent of victims die.

No drug is effective against the yellow fever virus. Because of the slow heart rate, treatment is directed at maintaining the blood volume and transfusions are often necessary. But a vaccination that confers immunity for 10 years is available.

Y is also for yoga, a Hindu system of physical discipline and philosophy popular in the West that helps to maintain suppleness and is a useful relaxation technique. The main form of yoga practised here is hatha yoga, in which a series of poses, known as asanas, are adopted together with a special breathing technique.

If practised incorrectly, or by people in poor health, yoga can pose health hazards including back disorders and high blood pressure

Z is for Z-plasty, a technique used in plastic surgery to change the direction of a scar so that it can be hidden in natural skin creases or relieve skin tension. Z-plasty is particularly useful for revising unsightly scars on the face, and for releasing scarring across joints that restrict normal movement - on the fingers, or in the armpits.

A Z-shaped incision is made, with the central arm of the Z along the scar. Two V-shaped flaps are created by cutting the skin away from underlying tissue. The flaps are then transposed and stitched, creating a new Z shape that hides the original scar line and redistributes tension.

News
people
News
A survey carried out by Sainsbury's Finance found 20% of new university students have never washed their own clothes, while 14% cannot even boil an egg
science...and the results are not as pointless as that sounds
Sport
Sean Abbott
cricketSean Abbott is named Australia's young cricketer of the year
News
i100
PROMOTED VIDEO
Life and Style
ebookNow available in paperback
ebooks
ebookPart of The Independent’s new eBook series The Great Composers
Latest stories from i100
Have you tried new the Independent Digital Edition apps?

ES Rentals

    Independent Dating
    and  

    By clicking 'Search' you
    are agreeing to our
    Terms of Use.

    iJobs Job Widget
    iJobs General

    Recruitment Genius: Supply Chain Manager

    Negotiable: Recruitment Genius: This company is a leading expert in immunoassa...

    Recruitment Genius: Online Customer Service Advisor

    £13000 - £15000 per annum: Recruitment Genius: A chance to work for an extreme...

    Recruitment Genius: Business Development Assistant

    Negotiable: Recruitment Genius: Are you a breath of fresh air? This vibrant bo...

    Recruitment Genius: Web Developer - PHP

    £16500 - £16640 per annum: Recruitment Genius: This fast growing Finance compa...

    Day In a Page

    Woman who was sent to three Nazi death camps describes how she escaped the gas chamber

    Auschwitz liberation 70th anniversary

    Woman sent to three Nazi death camps describes surviving gas chamber
    DSK, Dodo the Pimp, and the Carlton Hotel

    The inside track on France's trial of the year

    Dominique Strauss-Kahn, Dodo the Pimp, and the Carlton Hotel:
    As provocative now as they ever were

    Sarah Kane season

    Why her plays are as provocative now as when they were written
    Murder of Japanese hostage has grim echoes of a killing in Iraq 11 years ago

    Murder of Japanese hostage has grim echoes of another killing

    Japanese mood was against what was seen as irresponsible trips to a vicious war zone
    Syria crisis: Celebrities call on David Cameron to take more refugees as one young mother tells of torture by Assad regime

    Celebrities call on David Cameron to take more Syrian refugees

    One young mother tells of torture by Assad regime
    The enemy within: People who hear voices in their heads are being encouraged to talk back – with promising results

    The enemy within

    People who hear voices in their heads are being encouraged to talk back
    'In Auschwitz you got used to anything'

    'In Auschwitz you got used to anything'

    Survivors of the Nazi concentration camp remember its horror, 70 years on
    Autumn/winter menswear 2015: The uniforms that make up modern life come to the fore

    Autumn/winter menswear 2015

    The uniforms that make up modern life come to the fore
    'I'm gay, and plan to fight military homophobia'

    'I'm gay, and plan to fight military homophobia'

    Army general planning to come out
    Iraq invasion 2003: The bloody warnings six wise men gave to Tony Blair as he prepared to launch poorly planned campaign

    What the six wise men told Tony Blair

    Months before the invasion of Iraq in 2003, experts sought to warn the PM about his plans. Here, four of them recall that day
    25 years of The Independent on Sunday: The stories, the writers and the changes over the last quarter of a century

    25 years of The Independent on Sunday

    The stories, the writers and the changes over the last quarter of a century
    Homeless Veterans appeal: 'Really caring is a dangerous emotion in this kind of work'

    Homeless Veterans appeal

    As head of The Soldiers' Charity, Martin Rutledge has to temper compassion with realism. He tells Chris Green how his Army career prepared him
    Wu-Tang Clan and The Sexual Objects offer fans a chance to own the only copies of their latest albums

    Smash hit go under the hammer

    It's nice to pick up a new record once in a while, but the purchasers of two latest releases can go a step further - by buying the only copy
    Geeks who rocked the world: Documentary looks back at origins of the computer-games industry

    The geeks who rocked the world

    A new documentary looks back at origins of the computer-games industry
    Belle & Sebastian interview: Stuart Murdoch reveals how the band is taking a new direction

    Belle & Sebastian is taking a new direction

    Twenty years ago, Belle & Sebastian was a fey indie band from Glasgow. It still is – except today, as prime mover Stuart Murdoch admits, it has a global cult following, from Hollywood to South Korea